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Save Water Essay In English Wikipedia Dictionary

Water conservation includes all the policies, strategies and activities to sustainably manage the natural resource of fresh water, to protect the hydrosphere, and to meet the current and future human demand. Population, household size, and growth and affluence all affect how much water is used. Factors such as climate change have increased pressures on natural water resources especially in manufacturing and agricultural irrigation.[1] Many US cities have already implemented policies aimed at water conservation, with much success.[2]

The goals of water conservation efforts include:

Strategies[edit]

The key activities that benefit water conservation(save water) are as follows:

  1. Any beneficial reduction in water loss, use and waste of resources.[4]
  2. Avoiding any damage to water quality.
  3. Improving water management practices that reduce the use or enhance the beneficial use of water.[5][6]

One strategy in water conservation is rain water harvesting.[7] Digging ponds, lakes, canals, expanding the water reservoir, and installing rain water catching ducts and filtration systems on homes are different methods of harvesting rain water.[7] Harvested and filtered rain water could be used for toilets, home gardening, lawn irrigation, and small scale agriculture.[7]

Another strategy in water conservation is protecting groundwater resources. When precipitation occurs, some infiltrates the soil and goes underground.[8] Water in this saturation zone is called groundwater.[8]Contamination of groundwater causes the groundwater water supply to not be able to be used as resource of fresh drinking water and the natural regeneration of contaminated groundwater can takes years to replenish.[9] Some examples of potential sources of groundwater contamination include storage tanks, septic systems, uncontrolled hazardous waste, landfills, atmospheric contaminants, chemicals, and road salts.[9] Contamination of groundwater decreases the replenishment of available freshwater so taking preventative measures by protecting groundwater resources from contamination is an important aspect of water conservation.[7]

An additional strategy to water conservation is practicing sustainable methods of utilizing groundwater resources.[7] Groundwater flows due to gravity and eventually discharges into streams.[8] Excess pumping of groundwater leads to a decrease in groundwater levels and if continued it can exhaust the resource.[7] Ground and surface waters are connected and overuse of groundwater can reduce and, in extreme examples, diminish the water supply of lakes, rivers, and streams.[9] In coastal regions, over pumping groundwater can increase saltwater intrusion which results in the contamination of groundwater water supply.[9] Sustainable use of groundwater is essential in water conservation.

A fundamental component to water conservation strategy is communication and education outreach of different water programs.[10] Developing communication that educates science to land managers, policy makers, farmers, and the general public is another important strategy utilized in water conservation.[10] Communication of the science of how water systems work is an important aspect when creating a management plan to conserve that system and is often used for ensuring the right management plan to be put into action.[10]

Social solutions[edit]

Water conservation programs involved in social solutions are typically initiated at the local level, by either municipal water utilities or regional governments. Common strategies include public outreach campaigns,[11][12][13] tiered water rates (charging progressively higher prices as water use increases), or restrictions on outdoor water use such as lawn watering and car washing.[14] Cities in dry climates often require or encourage the installation of xeriscaping or natural landscaping in new homes to reduce outdoor water usage.[15] Most urban outdoor water use in California is residential,[16] illustrating a reason for outreach to households as well as businesses.

One fundamental conservation goal is universal metering. The prevalence of residential water metering varies significantly worldwide. Recent studies have estimated that water supplies are metered in less than 30% of UK households,[17] and about 61% of urban Canadian homes (as of 2001).[18] Although individual water meters have often been considered impractical in homes with private wells or in multifamily buildings, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that metering alone can reduce consumption by 20 to 40 percent.[19] In addition to raising consumer awareness of their water use, metering is also an important way to identify and localize water leakage. Water metering would benefit society in the long run it is proven that water metering increases the efficiency of the entire water system, as well as help unnecessary expenses for individuals for years to come. One would be unable to waste water unless they are willing to pay the extra charges, this way the water department would be able to monitor water usage by public, domestic and manufacturing services.

Some researchers have suggested that water conservation efforts should be primarily directed at farmers, in light of the fact that crop irrigation accounts for 70% of the world's fresh water use.[20] The agricultural sector of most countries is important both economically and politically, and water subsidies are common. Conservation advocates have urged removal of all subsidies to force farmers to grow more water-efficient crops and adopt less wasteful irrigation techniques.

New technology poses a few new options for consumers, features such and full flush and half flush when using a toilet are trying to make a difference in water consumption and waste. Also available are modern shower heads that help reduce wasting water: Old shower heads are said to use 5-10 gallons per minute, while new fixtures available are said to use 2.5 gallons per minute and offer equal water coverage.

Household applications[edit]

The Home Water Works website contains useful information on household water conservation.[21] Contrary to the popular view that the most effective way to save water is to curtail water-using behavior (e.g., by taking shorter showers),[22] experts suggest the most efficient way is replacing toilets and retrofitting washers; as demonstrated by two household end use logging studies in the U.S.[23][24]

Water-saving technology for the home includes:

  1. Low-flow shower heads sometimes called energy-efficient shower heads as they also use less energy
  2. Low-flush toilets and composting toilets. These have a dramatic impact in the developed world, as conventional Western toilets use large volumes of water
  3. Dual flush toilets created by Caroma includes two buttons or handles to flush different levels of water. Dual flush toilets use up to 67% less water than conventional toilets
  4. Faucet aerators, which break water flow into fine droplets to maintain "wetting effectiveness" while using less water. An additional benefit is that they reduce splashing while washing hands and dishes
  5. Raw water flushing where toilets use sea water or non-purified water
  6. Waste water reuse or recycling systems, allowing:
  7. Rainwater harvesting
  8. High-efficiency clothes washers
  9. Weather-based irrigation controllers
  10. Garden hosenozzles that shut off water when it is not being used, instead of letting a hose run.
  11. Low flow taps in wash basins
  12. Swimming pool covers that reduce evaporation and can warm pool water to reduce water, energy and chemical costs.
  13. Automatic faucet is a water conservation faucet that eliminates water waste at the faucet. It automates the use of faucets without the use of hands.

Commercial applications[edit]

Many water-saving devices (such as low-flush toilets) that are useful in homes can also be useful for business water saving. Other water-saving technology for businesses includes:

Agricultural applications[edit]

For crop irrigation, optimal water efficiency means minimizing losses due to evaporation, runoff or subsurface drainage while maximizing production. An evaporation pan in combination with specific crop correction factors can be used to determine how much water is needed to satisfy plant requirements. Flood irrigation, the oldest and most common type, is often very uneven in distribution, as parts of a field may receive excess water in order to deliver sufficient quantities to other parts. Overhead irrigation, using center-pivot or lateral-moving sprinklers, has the potential for a much more equal and controlled distribution pattern. Drip irrigation is the most expensive and least-used type, but offers the ability to deliver water to plant roots with minimal losses. However, drip irrigation is increasingly affordable, especially for the home gardener and in light of rising water rates. Using drip irrigation methods can save up to 30,000 gallons of water per year when replacing irrigation systems that spray in all directions.[25] There are also cheap effective methods similar to drip irrigation such as the use of soaking hoses that can even be submerged in the growing medium to eliminate evaporation.

As changing irrigation systems can be a costly undertaking, conservation efforts often concentrate on maximizing the efficiency of the existing system. This may include chiseling compacted soils, creating furrow dikes to prevent runoff, and using soil moisture and rainfall sensors to optimize irrigation schedules.[19] Usually large gains in efficiency are possible through measurement and more effective management of the existing irrigation system. The 2011 UNEP Green Economy Report notes that "[i]mproved soil organic matter from the use of green manures, mulching, and recycling of crop residues and animal manure increases the water holding capacity of soils and their ability to absorb water during torrential rains",[26] which is a way to optimize the use of rainfall and irrigation during dry periods in the season.

Water Reuse[edit]

Water shortage has become an increasingly difficult problem to manage. More than 40% of the world's population live in a region where the demand for water exceeds its supply. The imbalance between supply and demand, along with persisting issues such as climate change and exponential population growth, has made water reuse a necessary method for conserving water.[27] There are a variety of methods used in the treatment of waste water to ensure that it safe to use for irrigation of food crops and/or drinking water.

Seawater desalination requires more energy than the desalination of fresh water. Despite this, many seawater desalination plants have been built in response to water shortages around the world. This makes it necessary to evaluate the impacts of seawater desalination and to find ways to improve desalination technology. Current research involves the use of experiments to determine the most effective and least energy intensive methods of desalination.[28][29]

Sand filtration is another method used to treat water. Recent studies show that sand filtration needs further improvements, but it is approaching optimization with its effectiveness at removing pathogens from water.[30][31] Sand filtration is very effective at removing protozoa and bacteria, but struggles with removing viruses.[32] Large-scale sand filtration facilities also require large surface areas to accommodate them.

The removal of pathogens from recycled water is of high priority because wastewater always contains pathogens capable of infecting humans. The levels of pathogenic viruses have to be reduced to a certain level in order for recycled water to not pose a threat to human populations. Further research is necessary to determine more accurate methods of assessing the level of pathogenic viruses in treated wastewater.[33]

Wasting of water[edit]

Wasting of water (also called "water waste" in the U.S.) is the flip side of water conservation and, in household applications, it means causing or permitting discharge of water without any practical purpose. Inefficient water use is also considered wasteful. By EPA estimate, household leaks in the U.S. can waste approximately 900 billion gallons (3.4 billion cubic meters) of water annually nationwide.[34] Generally, water management agencies are reluctant or unwilling to give a concrete definition to the somewhat fuzzy concept of water waste.[35] However, definition of water waste is often given in local drought emergency ordinances. One example refers to any acts or omissions, whether willful or negligent, that are “causing or permitting water to leak, discharge, flow or run to waste into any gutter, sanitary sewer, watercourse or public or private storm drain, or to any adjacent property, from any tap, hose, faucet, pipe, sprinkler, pond, pool, waterway, fountain or nozzle.”.[36] In this example, the city code also clarifies that “in the case of washing, “discharge,” “flow” or “run to waste” means that water in excess of that necessary to wash, wet or clean the dirty or dusty object, such as an automobile, sidewalk, or parking area, flows to waste. Water utilities (and other media sources) often provide listings of wasteful water-use practices and prohibitions of wasteful uses. Examples include utilities in San Antonio, Texas.[37] Las Vegas, Nevada,[38] California Water Service company in California,[39] and City of San Diego, California.[40] The City of Palo Alto in California enforces permanent water use restrictions on wasteful practices such as leaks, runoff, irrigating during and immediately after rainfall, and use of potable water when non-potable water is available.[41] Similar restrictions are in effect in the State of Victoria, Australia.[42] Temporary water use bans (also known as "hosepipe bans") are used in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.[43]

Strictly speaking, water that is discharged into sewer, or directly to the environment is not wasted or lost. It remains within the hydrologic cycle and returns to land surface and surface water bodies as precipitation. However, in many cases the source of the water is at a significant distance from the return point and may be in a different catchment. The separation between extraction point and return point can represent significant environmental degradation in the watercourse and riparian strip. What is "wasted" is community's supply of water that was captured, stored, transported and treated to drinking quality standards. Efficient use of water saves the expense of water supply provision and leaves more fresh water in lakes, rivers and aquifers for other users and also for supporting ecosystems. A concept that is closely related to water wasting is "water-use efficiency." Water use is considered inefficient if the same purpose of its use can be accomplished with less water. Technical efficiency derives from engineering practice where it is typically used to describe the ratio of output to input and is useful in comparing various products and processes.[44] For example, one showerhead would be considered more efficient than another if it could accomplish the same purpose (i.e., of showering) by using less water or other inputs (e.g., lower water pressure). However, the technical efficiency concept is not useful in making decisions of investing money (or resources) in water conservation measures unless the inputs and outputs are measured in value terms. This expression of efficiency is referred to as economic efficiency and is incorporated into the concept of water conservation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

United States 1960 postal stamp advocating water conservation.
  1. ^"Water conservation « Defra". defra.gov.uk. 2013. Retrieved January 24, 2013. 
  2. ^"Cases in Water Conservation: How Efficiency Programs Help Water Utilities Save Water and Avoid Costs"(PDF). EPA.gov. US Environmental Protection Agency. 
  3. ^Hermoso, Virgilio; Abell, Robin; Linke, Simon; Boon, Philip (2016). "The role of protected areas for freshwater biodiversity conservation: challenges and opportunities in a rapidly changing world". Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 26 (S1): 3–11. doi:10.1002/aqc.2681. 
  4. ^Duane D. Baumann; John J. Boland; John H. Sims (April 1984). "Water Conservation: The Struggle over Definition". Water Resources Research. 20: 428–434. 
  5. ^Vickers, Amy (2002). Water Use and Conservation. Amherst, MA: water plow Press. p. 434. ISBN 1-931579-07-5. 
  6. ^Geerts, S.; Raes, D. (2009). "Deficit irrigation as an on-farm strategy to maximize crop water productivity in dry areas". Agric. Water Manage. 96 (9): 1275–1284. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2009.04.009. 
  7. ^ abcdefKumar Kurunthachalam, Senthil (2014). "Water Conservation and Sustainability: An Utmost Importance". Hydrol Current Res. 
  8. ^ abc"Description of the Hydrologic Cycle". nwrfc.noaa.gov/rfc/. NOAA River Forecast Center. 
  9. ^ abcd"Potential threats to Groundwater". groundwater.org/. The Groundwater Foundation. 
  10. ^ abcJorge A. Delgado, Peter M. Groffman, Mark A. Nearing, Tom Goddard, Don Reicosky, Rattan Lal, Newell R. Kitchen, Charles W. Rice, Dan Towery, and Paul Salon (2011). "Conservation Practices to Mitigate and Adapt to Climate Change". Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 
  11. ^"Persuading the public to reduce bottled water consumption"(pdf). European Commission. 3 September 2015. 
  12. ^"Water - Use It Wisely." U.S. multi-city public outreach program. Park & Co., Phoenix, AZ. Accessed 2010-02-02.
  13. ^Santos, Jessica; van der Linden, Sander (2016). "Changing Norms by Changing Behavior: The Princeton Drink Local Program". Environmental Practice. 18 (2): 1–7. doi:10.1017/S1466046616000144. 
  14. ^U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2002). Cases in Water Conservation(PDF) (Report). Retrieved 2010-02-02.  Document No. EPA-832-B-02-003.
  15. ^Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (2009-02-06). "Xeriscape Rebates". Albuquerque, NM. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  16. ^Heberger, Matthew (2014). "Issue Brief"(PDF). Urban Water Conservation and efficiency Potential in California: 12. 
  17. ^"Time for universal water metering?"Innovations Report. May 2006.
  18. ^Environment Canada (2005). Municipal Water Use, 2001 Statistics(PDF) (Report). Retrieved 2010-02-02.  Cat. No. En11-2/2001E-PDF. ISBN 0-662-39504-2. p. 3.
  19. ^ abEPA (2010-01-13). "How to Conserve Water and Use It Effectively". Washington, DC. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  20. ^Pimentel, Berger; et al. (October 2004). "Water resources: agricultural and environmental issues". BioScience. 54 (10): 909. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[0909:WRAAEI]2.0.CO;2. 
  21. ^http://www.home-water-works.org
  22. ^http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/02/26/1316402111
  23. ^Mayer, P.W.; DeOreo, W.B.; Opitz, E.M.; Kiefer, J.C.; Davis, W.Y.; Dziegielewski, B.; & Nelson, J.O., 1999. Residential End Uses of Water. AWWARF and AWWA, Denver. http://www.waterrf.org/PublicReportLibrary/RFR90781_1999_241A.pdf
  24. ^William B. DeOreo, Peter Mayer, Benedykt Dziegielewski, Jack Kiefer. 2016. Residential End Uses of Water, Version 2. Water Research Foundation. Denver, Colorado. http://www.waterrf.org/Pages/Projects.aspx?PID=4309
  25. ^"Water-Saving Technologies". WaterSense: An EPA Partnership Program. US Environmental Protection Agency. 
  26. ^UNEP, 2011, Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication, www.unep.org/greeneconomy
  27. ^Wastewater Reuse and Current Challenges - Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-23892-0. 
  28. ^Elimelech, Menachem; Phillip, William A. (2011-08-05). "The Future of Seawater Desalination: Energy, Technology, and the Environment". Science. 333 (6043): 712–717. doi:10.1126/science.1200488. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 21817042. 
  29. ^Han, Songlee; Rhee, Young-Woo; Kang, Seong-Pil (2017-02-17). "Investigation of salt removal using cyclopentane hydrate formation and washing treatment for seawater desalination". Desalination. 404: 132–137. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2016.11.016. 
  30. ^Seeger, Eva M.; Braeckevelt, Mareike; Reiche, Nils; Müller, Jochen A.; Kästner, Matthias (2016-10-01). "Removal of pathogen indicators from secondary effluent using slow sand filtration: Optimization approaches". Ecological Engineering. 95: 635–644. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.06.068. 
  31. ^Vries, D.; Bertelkamp, C.; Kegel, F. Schoonenberg; Hofs, B.; Dusseldorp, J.; Bruins, J. H.; de Vet, W.; van den Akker, B. (2017). "Iron and manganese removal: Recent advances in modelling treatment efficiency by rapid sand filtration". Water Research. 109: 35–45. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2016.11.032. PMID 27865171. 
  32. ^"Slow Sand Filtration". CDC.gov. May 2, 2014. 
  33. ^Gerba, Charles P.; Betancourt, Walter Q.; Kitajima, Masaaki (2017). "How much reduction of virus is needed for recycled water: A continuous changing need for assessment?". Water Research. 108: 25–31. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2016.11.020. PMID 27838026. 
  34. ^"Statistics and Facts | WaterSense | US EPA". Epa.gov. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  35. ^"Janet C. Neuman. Beneficial Use, Waste, and Forfeiture:The Inefficient Search for Efficiency in Western Water Use"(PDF). Retrieved 2017-08-06. 
  36. ^"14.09.030 Definition of water waste". Qcode.us. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  37. ^"SAWS Report Water Waste - What is Water Waste?". Saws.org. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  38. ^"Water Waste". Lvvwd.com. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  39. ^"Report Water Waste". Cal Water. 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  40. ^"Water Saving Tips | City of San Diego Official Website". Sandiego.gov. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  41. ^"Water & Drought Update - Palo Alto Water Use Guidelines". Retrieved 2017-08-06. 
  42. ^"Permanent water saving rules". Retrieved 2017-08-06. 
  43. ^Water UK http://www.water.org.uk/consumers/tubs
  44. ^Dziegielewski, B. J.; Kiefer, C. (January 22, 2010). "Water Conservation Measurement Metrics: Guidance Report"(PDF). American Water Works Association. 

For other uses, see Drought (disambiguation).

A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water. A drought can last for months or years, or may be declared after as few as 15 days.[1] It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region[2] and harm to the local economy.[3] Annual dry seasons in the tropics significantly increase the chances of a drought developing and subsequent bush fires. Periods of heat can significantly worsen drought conditions by hastening evaporation of water vapour.

Many plant species, such as those in the family Cactaceae (or cacti), have drought tolerance adaptations like reduced leaf area and waxy cuticles to enhance their ability to tolerate drought. Some others survive dry periods as buried seeds. Semi-permanent drought produces arid biomes such as deserts and grasslands.[4] Prolonged droughts have caused mass migrations and humanitarian crises. Most arid ecosystems have inherently low productivity. The most prolonged drought ever in the world in recorded history occurred in the Atacama Desert in Chile (400 Years).[5]

Causes of drought[edit]

Precipitation deficiency[edit]

See also: Precipitation

Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective, stratiform,[6] and orographic rainfall.[7] Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation,[8] while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation over a longer duration.[9] Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Droughts occur mainly in areas where normal levels of rainfall are, in themselves, low. If these factors do not support precipitation volumes sufficient to reach the surface over a sufficient time, the result is a drought. Drought can be triggered by a high level of reflected sunlight and above average prevalence of high pressure systems, winds carrying continental, rather than oceanic air masses, and ridges of high pressure areas aloft can prevent or restrict the developing of thunderstorm activity or rainfall over one certain region. Once a region is within drought, feedback mechanisms such as local arid air,[10] hot conditions which can promote warm core ridging,[11] and minimal evapotranspiration can worsen drought conditions.

Dry season[edit]

See also: Dry season

Within the tropics, distinct, wet and dry seasons emerge due to the movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone or Monsoon trough.[12] The dry season greatly increases drought occurrence,[13] and is characterized by its low humidity, with watering holes and rivers drying up. Because of the lack of these watering holes, many grazing animals are forced to migrate due to the lack of water and feed to more fertile spots. Examples of such animals are zebras, elephants,[14] and wildebeest. Because of the lack of water in the plants, bushfires are common.[15] Since water vapor becomes more energetic with increasing temperature, more water vapor is required to increase relative humidity values to 100% at higher temperatures (or to get the temperature to fall to the dew point).[16] Periods of warmth quicken the pace of fruit and vegetable production,[17] increase evaporation and transpiration from plants,[18] and worsen drought conditions.[19]

El Niño[edit]

See also: El Niño

Drier and hotter weather occurs in parts of the Amazon River Basin, Colombia, and Central America during El Niño events. Winters during the El Niño are warmer and drier than average conditions in the Northwest, northern Midwest, and northern Mideast United States, so those regions experience reduced snowfalls. Conditions are also drier than normal from December to February in south-central Africa, mainly in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Botswana. Direct effects of El Niño resulting in drier conditions occur in parts of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia, increasing bush fires, worsening haze, and decreasing air quality dramatically. Drier-than-normal conditions are also in general observed in Queensland, inland Victoria, inland New South Wales, and eastern Tasmania from June to August. As warm water spreads from the west Pacific and the Indian Ocean to the east Pacific, it causes extensive drought in the western Pacific. Singapore experienced the driest February in 2014 since records began in 1869, with only 6.3 mm of rain falling in the month and temperatures hitting as high as 35 °C on 26 February. The years 1968 and 2005 had the next driest Februaries, when 8.4 mm of rain fell.[20]

Erosion and human activities[edit]

See also: Aeolian processes

Human activity can directly trigger exacerbating factors such as over farming, excessive irrigation,[21]deforestation, and erosion adversely impact the ability of the land to capture and hold water.[22] In arid climates, the main source of erosion is wind.[23] Erosion can be the result of material movement by the wind. The wind can cause small particles to be lifted and therefore moved to another region (deflation). Suspended particles within the wind may impact on solid objects causing erosion by abrasion (ecological succession). Wind erosion generally occurs in areas with little or no vegetation, often in areas where there is insufficient rainfall to support vegetation.[24]

Loess is a homogeneous, typically nonstratified, porous, friable, slightly coherent, often calcareous, fine-grained, silty, pale yellow or buff, windblown (Aeolian) sediment.[25] It generally occurs as a widespread blanket deposit that covers areas of hundreds of square kilometers and tens of meters thick. Loess often stands in either steep or vertical faces.[26] Loess tends to develop into highly rich soils. Under appropriate climatic conditions, areas with loess are among the most agriculturally productive in the world.[27] Loess deposits are geologically unstable by nature, and will erode very readily. Therefore, windbreaks (such as big trees and bushes) are often planted by farmers to reduce the wind erosion of loess.[23] Wind erosion is much more severe in arid areas and during times of drought. For example, in the Great Plains, it is estimated that soil loss due to wind erosion can be as much as 6100 times greater in drought years than in wet years.[28]

Climate change[edit]

See also: Climate change

Activities resulting in global climate change are expected to trigger droughts with a substantial impact on agriculture[29][30] throughout the world, and especially in developing nations.[31][32][33] Overall, global warming will result in increased world rainfall.[34] Along with drought in some areas, flooding and erosion will increase in others. Paradoxically, some proposed solutions to global warming that focus on more active techniques, solar radiation management through the use of a space sunshade for one, may also carry with them increased chances of drought.[35]

Types[edit]

As a drought persists, the conditions surrounding it gradually worsen and its impact on the local population gradually increases. People tend to define droughts in three main ways: [36]

  1. Meteorological drought is brought about when there is a prolonged time with less than average precipitation. Meteorological drought usually precedes the other kinds of drought.[37]
  2. Agricultural droughts affect crop production or the ecology of the range. This condition can also arise independently from any change in precipitation levels when soil conditions and erosion triggered by poorly planned agricultural endeavors cause a shortfall in water available to the crops. However, in a traditional drought, it is caused by an extended period of below average precipitation.[38]
  3. Hydrological drought is brought about when the water reserves available in sources such as aquifers, lakes and reservoirs fall below the statisticalaverage. Hydrological drought tends to show up more slowly because it involves stored water that is used but not replenished. Like an agricultural drought, this can be triggered by more than just a loss of rainfall. For instance, around 2007 Kazakhstan was awarded a large amount of money by the World Bank to restore water that had been diverted to other nations from the Aral Sea under Soviet rule.[39] Similar circumstances also place their largest lake, Balkhash, at risk of completely drying out.[40]

Consequences of drought[edit]

One can divide the effects of droughts and water shortages into three groups: environmental, economic and social.

  • In the case of environmental effects: lower surface and subterranean water-levels, lower flow-levels (with a decrease below the minimum leading to direct danger for amphibian life), increased pollution of surface water, the drying out of wetlands, more and larger fires, higher deflation intensity, loss of biodiversity, worse health of trees and the appearance of pests and dendroid diseases.
  • Economic losses include lower agricultural, forests, game and fishing output, higher food-production costs, lower energy-production levels in hydro plants, losses caused by depleted water tourism and transport revenue, problems with water supply for the energy sector and for technological processes in metallurgy, mining, the chemical, paper, wood, foodstuff industries etc., disruption of water supplies for municipal economies.
  • Social costs include the negative effect on the health of people directly exposed to this phenomenon (excessive heat waves), possible limitation of water supplies, increased pollution levels, high food-costs, stress caused by failed harvests, etc. This explains why droughts and fresh water shortages operate as a factor which increases the gap between developed and developing countries.[41]

Effects vary according to vulnerability. For example, subsistence farmers are more likely to migrate during drought because they do not have alternative food-sources. Areas with populations that depend on water sources as a major food-source are more vulnerable to famine.

Drought can also reduce water quality,[42][43] because lower water-flows reduce dilution of pollutants and increase contamination of remaining water-sources. Common consequences of drought include:

  • Diminished crop growth or yield productions and carrying capacity for livestock
  • Dust bowls, themselves a sign of erosion, which further erode the landscape
  • Dust storms, when drought hits an area suffering from desertification and erosion
  • Famine due to lack of water for irrigation
  • Habitat damage, affecting both terrestrial and aquatic wildlife[44]
  • Hunger – drought provides too little water to support food crops.
  • Malnutrition, dehydration and related diseases
  • Mass migration, resulting in internal displacement and international refugees
  • Reduced electricity production due to reduced water-flow through hydroelectricdams[45]
  • Shortages of water for industrial users[46][47]
  • Snake migration, which results in snake-bites[48]
  • Social unrest
  • War over natural resources, including water and food
  • Wildfires, such as Australianbushfires, become more common during times of drought and may cause human deaths.[49]
  • Exposure and oxidation of acid sulfate soils due to falling surface- and ground-water levels.[50][51][52]
  • Cyanotoxin accumulation within food chains and water supply (some of which are among the most potent toxins known to science) can cause cancer with low exposure over the long term.[53] High levels of microcystin appeared in San Francisco Bay Area salt-water shellfish and fresh-water supplies throughout the state of California in 2016.

Globally[edit]

Drought is a normal, recurring feature of the climate in most parts of the world. It is among the earliest documented climatic events, present in the Epic of Gilgamesh and tied to the biblical story of Joseph's arrival in and the later Exodus from Ancient Egypt.[54] Hunter-gatherer migrations in 9,500 BC Chile have been linked to the phenomenon,[55] as has the exodus of early humans out of Africa and into the rest of the world around 135,000 years ago.[56]

Examples[edit]

Main article: List of droughts

Well-known historical droughts include:

  • 1900 India killing between 250,000 and 3.25 million.
  • 1921–22 Soviet Union in which over 5 million perished from starvation due to drought
  • 1928–30 Northwest China resulting in over 3 million deaths by famine.
  • 1936 and 1941 Sichuan Province China resulting in 5 million and 2.5 million deaths respectively.
  • The 1997–2009 Millennium Drought in Australia led to a water supply crisis across much of the country. As a result, many desalination plants were built for the first time (see list).
  • In 2006, Sichuan Province China experienced its worst drought in modern times with nearly 8 million people and over 7 million cattle facing water shortages.
  • 12-year drought that was devastating southwest Western Australia, southeast South Australia, Victoria and northern Tasmania was "very severe and without historical precedent".

The Darfur conflict in Sudan, also affecting Chad, was fueled by decades of drought; combination of drought, desertification and overpopulation are among the causes of the Darfur conflict, because the ArabBaggaranomads searching for water have to take their livestock further south, to land mainly occupied by non-Arab farming people.[57]

Approximately 2.4 billion people live in the drainage basin of the Himalayan rivers.[58]India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Myanmar could experience floods followed by droughts in coming decades. Drought in India affecting the Ganges is of particular concern, as it provides drinking water and agricultural irrigation for more than 500 million people.[59][60][61] The west coast of North America, which gets much of its water from glaciers in mountain ranges such as the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada, also would be affected.[62][63]

In 2005, parts of the Amazon basin experienced the worst drought in 100 years.[64][65] A 23 July 2006 article reported Woods Hole Research Center results showing that the forest in its present form could survive only three years of drought.[66][67] Scientists at the Brazilian National Institute of Amazonian Research argue in the article that this drought response, coupled with the effects of deforestation on regional climate, are pushing the rainforest towards a "tipping point" where it would irreversibly start to die. It concludes that the rainforest is on the brink of being turned into savanna or desert, with catastrophic consequences for the world's climate. According to the WWF, the combination of climate change and deforestation increases the drying effect of dead trees that fuels forest fires.[68]

By far the largest part of Australia is desert or semi-arid lands commonly known as the outback. A 2005 study by Australian and American researchers investigated the desertification of the interior, and suggested that one explanation was related to human settlers who arrived about 50,000 years ago. Regular burning by these settlers could have prevented monsoons from reaching interior Australia.[71] In June 2008 it became known that an expert panel had warned of long term, maybe irreversible, severe ecological damage for the whole Murray-Darling basin if it did not receive sufficient water by October 2008.[72] Australia could experience more severe droughts and they could become more frequent in the future, a government-commissioned report said on July 6, 2008.[73] Australian environmentalist Tim Flannery, predicted that unless it made drastic changes, Perth in Western Australia could become the world’s first ghost metropolis, an abandoned city with no more water to sustain its population.[74] The long Australian Millennial drought broke in 2010.

Recurring droughts leading to desertification in East Africa have created grave ecological catastrophes, prompting food shortages in 1984–85, 2006 and 2011.[75] During the 2011 drought, an estimated 50,000 to 150,000 people were reported to have died,[76] though these figures and the extent of the crisis are disputed.[77] In February 2012, the UN announced that the crisis was over due to a scaling up of relief efforts and a bumper harvest.[78] Aid agencies subsequently shifted their emphasis to recovery efforts, including digging irrigation canals and distributing plant seeds.[78]

In 2012, a severe drought struck the western Sahel. The Methodist Relief & Development Fund (MRDF) reported that more than 10 million people in the region were at risk of famine due to a month-long heat wave that was hovering over Niger, Mali, Mauritania and Burkina Faso. A fund of about £20,000 was distributed to the drought-hit countries.[79]

Protection, mitigation and relief[edit]

Agriculturally, people can effectively mitigate much of the impact of drought through irrigation and crop rotation. Failure to develop adequate drought mitigation strategies carries a grave human cost in the modern era, exacerbated by ever-increasing population densities. President Roosevelt on April 27, 1935, signed documents creating the Soil Conservation Service (SCS)—now the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Models of the law were sent to each state where they were enacted. These were the first enduring practical programs to curtail future susceptibility to drought, creating agencies that first began to stress soil conservation measures to protect farm lands today. It was not until the 1950s that there was an importance placed on water conservation was put into the existing laws (NRCS 2014).[80]

Strategies for drought protection, mitigation or relief include:

  • Dams – many dams and their associated reservoirs supply additional water in times of drought.[81]
  • Cloud seeding – a form of intentional weather modification to induce rainfall.[82] This remains a hotly debated topic, as the United States National Research Council released a report in 2004 stating that to date, there is still no convincing scientific proof of the efficacy of intentional weather modification.[83]
  • Desalination – of sea water for irrigation or consumption.[84]
  • Drought monitoring – Continuous observation of rainfall levels and comparisons with current usage levels can help prevent man-made drought. For instance, analysis of water usage in Yemen has revealed that their water table (underground water level) is put at grave risk by over-use to fertilize their Khat crop.[85] Careful monitoring of moisture levels can also help predict increased risk for wildfires, using such metrics as the Keetch-Byram Drought Index[49] or Palmer Drought Index.
  • Land use – Carefully planned crop rotation can help to minimize erosion and allow farmers to plant less water-dependent crops in drier years.
  • Outdoor water-use restriction – Regulating the use of sprinklers, hoses or buckets on outdoor plants, filling pools, and other water-intensive home maintenance tasks. Xeriscaping yards can significantly reduce unnecessary water use by residents of towns and cities.
  • Rainwater harvesting – Collection and storage of rainwater from roofs or other suitable catchments.
  • Recycled water – Former wastewater (sewage) that has been treated and purified for reuse.
  • Transvasement – Building canals or redirecting rivers as massive attempts at irrigation in drought-prone areas.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^It's a scorcher - and Ireland is officially 'in drought' Irish Independent, 2013-07-18.
  2. ^Living With DroughtArchived 2007-02-18 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^Australian Drought and Climate Change, retrieved on June 7th 2007.
  4. ^Keddy, P.A. 2007. (https://www.amazon.com/Plants-Vegetation-Origins-Processes-Consequences/dp/0521864801 Plants and Vegetation: Origins, Processes, Consequences). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 666 p.
  5. ^"Driest Place: Atacama Desert, Chile". Extreme Science. Retrieved September 25, 2016. .
  6. ^Emmanouil N. Anagnostou (2004). "A convective/stratiform precipitation classification algorithm for volume scanning weather radar observations". Meteorological Applications. Cambridge University Press. 11 (4): 291–300. Bibcode:2004MeApp..11..291A. doi:10.1017/S1350482704001409. 
  7. ^A.J. Dore; M. Mousavi-Baygi; R.I. Smith; J. Hall; D. Fowler; T.W. Choularton (June 2006). "A model of annual orographic precipitation and acid deposition and its application to Snowdonia". Atmospheric Environment. 40 (18): 3316–3326. Bibcode:2006AtmEn..40.3316D. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.01.043. 
  8. ^Robert Penrose Pearce (2002). Meteorology at the Millennium. Academic Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-12-548035-2. Retrieved 2009-01-02. 
  9. ^. ISBN 0080502105https://books.google.com/books?id=5DKWGZ4-06-28. Retrieved 2015-02-18. 
  10. ^Roland Paepe; Rhodes Whitmore Fairbridge; Saskia Jelgersma (1990). Greenhouse Effect, Sea Level and Drought. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 22. ISBN 0792310179. 
  11. ^Joseph S. D'Aleo; Pamela G. Grube (2002). The Oryx Resource Guide to El Niño and La Niña. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 48–49. ISBN 1573563781. 
  12. ^Bin Wang (2006-01-13). The Asian Monsoon. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 206. ISBN 3540406107. 
  13. ^Vijendra K. Boken; Arthur P. Cracknell; Ronald L. Heathcote (2005-03-24). Monitoring and Predicting Agricultural Drought : A Global Study: A Global Study. Oxford University Press. p. 349. ISBN 0198036787. 
  14. ^TONY RENNELL (June 29, 2007). "It's dry season and elephants are desperately seeking water - but poachers lie in wait". London: Daily Mail. 
  15. ^"Wet & Dry Seasons". 
  16. ^Alistair B. Fraser (1994-11-27). "Bad Meteorology: The reason clouds form when air cools is because cold air cannot hold as much water vapor as warm air". Retrieved 2015-02-17. 
  17. ^Cooperative Extension Service (January 2014). Home Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky(PDF). University of Kentucky. p. 19. Retrieved 2015-02-18. 
  18. ^North Carolina State University (2013-08-09). "Evapotranspiration". Retrieved 2015-02-18. 
  19. ^National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2002-05-16). "Warm Temperatures and Severe Drought Continued in April Throughout Parts of the United States; Global Temperature For April Second Warmest on Record". Retrieved 2015-02-18. 
  20. ^"channelnewsasia.com - February 2010 is driest month for S'pore since records began in 1869". 3 March 2010. Archived from the original on 3 March 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2017. 
  21. ^"A biblical tragedy as Sea of Galilee faces drought". BelfastTelegraph.co.uk. 
  22. ^"Kenya: Deforestation exacerbates droughts, floods". forests.org. 
  23. ^ abVern Hofman; Dave Franzen (1997). "Emergency Tillage to Control Wind Erosion". North Dakota State University Extension Service. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
  24. ^United States Geological Survey (2004). "Dunes – Getting Started". Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
  25. ^F. von Richthofen (1882). "On the mode of origin of the loess". Geological Magazine (Decade II). 9 (7): 293–305. Bibcode:1882GeoM....9..293R. doi:10.1017/S001675680017164X. 
  26. ^K.E.K. Neuendorf; J.P. Mehl, Jr.; J.A. Jackson (2005). Glossary of Geology. Springer-Verlag, New York. p. 779. ISBN 3-540-27951-2. 
  27. ^Arthur Getis; Judith Getis and Jerome D. Fellmann (2000). Introduction to Geography, Seventh Edition. McGraw-Hill. p. 99. ISBN 0-697-38506-X. 
  28. ^Wiggs, Giles F.S. (2011). "Geomorphological hazards in drylands". In Thomas, David S.G. Arid Zone Geomorphology: Process, Form and Change in Drylands. John Wiley & Sons. p. 588. ISBN 978-0-470-71076-0.  The distribution of all the water on the earth’s surface is not even. Some places have lots of fresh water (rivers, lakes, lagoons, ponds etc.) and are continuously replenished by rainfall, runoffs and water from underground. Others places too are known to have very little water. Therefore, if a region that has lots of rainfall, goes for a couple of weeks without rains, and people, animals and plants begin to experience a bit of dryness, it can be called drought. At the same time, that condition may be very normal for places with no water, and can go for months without any rains with little problems.
  29. ^NOAA Drought and climate change: implications for the West Archived 2008-06-25 at the Wayback Machine. December 2002
  30. ^"Smith A.B. and R. Katz, 2013: U.S. Billion-dollar weather and climate disasters: Data sources, trends, accuracy and biases. Natural Hazards, 67, 387–410, doi:10.1007/s11069-013-0566-5"(PDF). Retrieved 5 November 2017. 
  31. ^"Finfacts: Irish business, finance news on economics". finfacts.com. 
  32. ^Fuel costs, drought influence price increaseArchived September 13, 2012, at Archive.is
  33. ^"Nigerian Scholar Links Drought, Climate Change to Conflict in Africa - US Department of State". state.gov. Archived from the original on 28 October 2005. 
  34. ^"Is Water the New Oil?". Common Dreams. 
  35. ^Sunshade' for global warming could cause drought 2 August 2007 New Scientist, Catherine Brahic
  36. ^"Qianfeng Wang". ResearchGate. 
  37. ^"What is a Drought?"(PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. August 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-10. 
  38. ^The alleviating trend of drought in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China based on the daily SPEI. International Journal of Climatology.2015. doi: 10.1002/joc.4244 Wang, Qianfeng, Shi, Peijun, Lei, Tianjie, Geng, Guangpo, Liu, Jinghui, Mo, Xinyu, Li, Xiaohan, Zhou, Hongkui. and Wu, Jianjun
  39. ^"BBC NEWS - Asia-Pacific - Dam project aims to save Aral Sea". bbc.co.uk. 
  40. ^"BBC NEWS - Asia-Pacific - Kazakh lake 'could dry up'". bbc.co.uk. 
  41. ^Prokurat, Sergiusz (2015). "Drought and water shortages in Asia as a threat and economic problem"(PDF). Journal of Modern Science. 26 (3). Retrieved 4 August 2016. 
  42. ^Mosley LM (2014). Drought impacts on the water quality of freshwater systems; review and integration. Earth Science Reviews. DOI: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2014.11.010.
  43. ^10. Mosley LM, Zammit B, Leyden E, Heneker TM, Hipsey MR, Skinner D, and Aldridge KT (2012). The Impact of Extreme Low Flows on the Water Quality of the Lower Murray River and Lakes (South Australia). Water Resources Management 26: 3923–3946.
  44. ^C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Abiotic factor. Ed. Emily Monosson. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DCArchived June 8, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  45. ^Drought affecting US hydroelectric production | Daily EstimateArchived October 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  46. ^"Parched village sues to shut tap at Coke / Drought-hit Indians say plant draining groundwater". SFGate. 
  47. ^
Regional impacts of warm ENSO episodes (El Niño)
A South Dakota farm during the Dust Bowl, 1936
Lake Chad in a 2001 satellite image. The lake has shrunk by 95% since the 1960s.[69][70]
Succulent plants are well-adapted to survive long periods of drought.
Aerosols over the Amazon each September for four burning seasons (2005 through 2008) during the Amazon basin drought. The aerosol scale (yellow to dark reddish-brown) indicates the relative amount of particles that absorb sunlight.

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