• Home   /  
  • Archive by category "1"

Vocabulary Workshop Second Course Lesson 28 Homework

Introduction to the Kinetic Theory of Matter

Once my scientists are seated, I tell them that they are going to learn about a very important concept today that explains how matter can change state.  I tell them that this is called "The Kinetic Theory of Matter."  I define the word kinetic - which means motion, or movement.  

I say, "So then, this is a theory that scientists have about the way the particles in matter move."    I project the digital book Kitty's Morning Tea and read it to my students as a read aloud.  (This is a wonderful book, and if it ever gets printed - I am rushing out to buy it!)

Connect to Prior Knowledge

I ask my scientists to turn to the next clean page in their Science Notebooks, because we need to review some concepts, and then add on this new information so that we can make sense of it.  I ask them to write, The Kinetic Theory of Matter at the top of the page, along with today's date.   I ask them to think back on our lessons so far, and then ask for a volunteer to tell me what all matter is composed of.  I call on a student and confirm that yes, all matter is composed of particles.  I write in my notebook, and ask students to copy in their notebooks:

1.  All matter is composed of particles that are too small to be seen.

I ask my students to remember about what they learned about the arrangement of particles in solids, liquids, and gases from our our previous two lessons on Plaid Pete's Particles. I ask them to think about what cause these states of matter to have their own specific properties.  I say, "For example, how are particles arranged in a solid in such a way that makes a solid have a definite shape and volume?  And how are particles arranged in a liquid, so that a liquid flows, or in a gas, so that it takes up the space of the closed container that it is in?"  

I give them a moment of think time, and then ask them to turn and tell their partner what they remember.  I accept answers, and question until I elicit the information that in all states of matter the particles move.  I call for volunteers and then add the following notes:

2.  All particles are in constant motion.

In a solid, the particles are close together.  The particles vibrate, but do not move around, which causes solids to have a rigid or stiff shape.  

In a liquid, the particles are a little farther apart.  These particles move around and slide past each other, which causes liquids to flow. 

In a gas, the particles are very far apart, they move very fast and bump into one another.

 I ask my students to remember back when we learned about the particles in solids, and why a solid was a solid - I ask, "Why do the particles in solids stay so tightly together?"  I call on a volunteer and confirm that yes, they are held together by forces.  I write the next note and instruct my students to copy:

3.  The particles in matter are held together by strong forces.

Play Video

I tell my students that there is one more note - one more piece to this theory, and that I want them to watch a short video that, along with Kitty's Morning Tea will help explain it.  I play Scholastic Study Jams:  Solids, Liquids, Gases.

After I play the video, I ask my students, "When you are out on the playground running around playing tag or soccer, what happens to your skin if you touch it?"  A student correctly responds that it gets hot.  So, I say, "When you move you produce heat.  When the particles in matter move, what do they do?"  I call on a student who correctly responds that they also produce heat.  I write.

4. Because the particles in matter are in constant motion, they have kinetic energy (motion energy).   When you heat matter (transfer energy to matter), it absorbs the energy and the molecules move faster.  The matter changes state, from a solid, to a liquid, then to a gas.  When you remove heat from matter (transfer energy away from matter) or cool it, the molecules move slower.  The matter again changes state, from a gas, to a liquid, to a solid.  

5.  State changes are the result of molecules either moving faster or slowing down.

I ask for a volunteer to summarize what we have written - what is "The Kinetic Theory of Matter?"  After an accurate summary has been provided I ask my students to turn to the person next to them and explain what is meant by the Kinetic Theory of Matter. I tell them I will give them a a few minutes, and then call for them to switch partners.  I know that it is critical they have this opportunity to discuss this new idea.  

This is a difficult concept for my students.  They have little background knowledge for this concept, so I ask, "Class, when scientists are trying to explain something that is complex and too small to see, what do they do?"  One student correctly responds, "Use a model."  So I go to the whiteboard and with students guiding me, I construct a model of what is happening.  Students copy this model of energy transfers into their Science Notebooks.

I tell my students that it's time to get read for some new vocabulary.

Second Course

Grammar • Usage • Mechanics • Sentences

TEACHER’S EDITION

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T02-T17

4/12/08

8:29 AM

Page T2

JOHN E. WARRINER taught for thirty-two years in junior and senior high schools and in college. He was a high school English teacher when he developed the original organizational structure for his classic English Grammar and Composition series. The approach

AU UT TH HO OR R A

pioneered by Mr. Warriner was distinctive, and the editorial staff of Holt, Rinehart and Winston have worked diligently to retain the unique qualities of his pedagogy in the Holt Handbook. John Warriner also co-authored the English Workshop series and edited Short Stories: Characters in Conflict.

Copyright © 2008 by Holt, Rinehart and Winston All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be mailed to the following address: Permissions Department, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 10801 N. MoPac Expressway, Building 3, Austin, Texas 78759. Acknowledgments and other credits appear on pages 551 and 552, which are an extension of the copyright page. HOLT and the “Owl Design” are trademarks licensed to Holt, Rinehart and Winston, registered in the United States of America and/or other jurisdictions. WARRINER’S HANDBOOK is a trademark of Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Printed in the United States of America If you have received these materials as examination copies free of charge, Holt, Rinehart and Winston retains title to the materials and they may not be resold. Resale of examination copies is strictly prohibited. Possession of this publication in print format does not entitle users to convert this publication, or any portion of it, into electronic format. ISBN 978-0-03-099037-3 ISBN 0-03-099037-3 1 2 3 4 5 6 043 11 10 09 08 07

T2

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T02-T17

4/11/08

5:32 PM

Page T3

CONTENTS IN BRIEF T E AC H I N G RESOURCES

PART 1

About This Book John Warriner: In His Own Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T18 To Our Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T21 Teaching Strands: Connnecting Grammar and Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T24 Essays on Teaching Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T26 Overview of the Holt Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T48 Instructional Resources: Chapter by Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T60 Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics

Usage

Mechanics

PART 2

Interjection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Complements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 The Phrase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 The Clause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Sentence Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Using Verbs Correctly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Using Pronouns Correctly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Using Modifiers Correctly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 A Glossary of Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 Capital Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Punctuation: End Marks, Commas, Semicolons, Colons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Punctuation: Underlining (Italics), Quotation Marks, Apostrophes, Hyphens, Parentheses, Brackets, Dashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 16 Spelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 17 Correcting Common Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Sentences 18 Writing Effective Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 19 Sentence Diagramming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472

Resources ▲▲▲

PART 3

1 The Parts of a Sentence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 Parts of Speech Overview: Noun, Pronoun, Adjective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3 Parts of Speech Overview: Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction,

Grammar

The History of English . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 Test Smarts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 Grammar at a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536 Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551 Photo and Illustration Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552

Contents

T3

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T02-T17

4/11/08

5:32 PM

Page T4

CONTENTS Teaching Resources

PART 1

About This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T18 John Warriner: In His Own Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To Our Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teaching Strands: Connecting Grammar and Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Essays on Teaching Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dispelling the Myths About Grammar Instruction, by Amy Benjamin . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar: Why Teach It?, by Brock Haussamen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Getting Down to Basics: Using What Students Already Know, by Rei Noguchi . . . . Raising Expectations: The Importance of Teaching Grammar to ESL Students, by Billy Boyar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of the Holt Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instructional Resources: Chapter by Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

T18 T21 T24 T26 T34 T34 T39 T43 T48 T60

Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

The Parts of a Sentence CHAPTER

Subject and Predicate, Kinds of Sentences

......................2

DIAGNOSTIC PREVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 A. Identifying Sentences and Sentence Fragments B. Identifying Subjects and Predicates C. Classifying Sentences THE SENTENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 THE SUBJECT AND THE PREDICATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The Subject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The Predicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 The Compound Subject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 The Compound Verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 CLASSIFYING SENTENCES BY PURPOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 CHAPTER REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 A. Identifying Sentences and Sentence Fragments B. Identifying Subjects and Predicates C. Classifying Sentences D. Identifying Subjects and Verbs Writing Application: Using Subjects and Predicates in a Paragraph . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

T4

Contents

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T02-T17

4/11/08

5:32 PM

Page T5

Parts of Speech Overview CHAPTER

Noun, Pronoun, Adjective

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

DIAGNOSTIC PREVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 A. Identifying Nouns, Pronouns, and Adjectives B. Identifying Nouns, Pronouns, and Adjectives THE NOUN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compound Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Common Nouns and Proper Nouns . Concrete Nouns and Abstract Nouns Collective Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

25 26 28 29 29

THE PRONOUN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns . . . . . . Interrogative Pronouns . . . . . . . . Relative Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . Indefinite Pronouns . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

31 32 33 34 34 35 36

THE ADJECTIVE . . . . . . . . Articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Demonstrative Adjectives Adjectives in Sentences . . Proper Adjectives . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

38 39 40 40 42

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

DETERMINING PARTS OF SPEECH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 CHAPTER REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 A. Identifying Nouns, Pronouns, and Adjectives B. Identifying Pronouns Writing Application: Writing a Movie Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Parts of Speech Overview CHAPTER

Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, Interjection . . . . . . . . . 50 DIAGNOSTIC PREVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 A. Identifying Different Parts of Speech B. Identifying Different Parts of Speech THE VERB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Helping Verbs and Main Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Action Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Contents

T5

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T02-T17

4/11/08

5:32 PM

Page T6

Linking Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Transitive and Intransitive Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 THE ADVERB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adverbs Modifying Verbs . . . . . . . Adverb or Adjective? . . . . . . . . . . Adverbs Modifying Adjectives . . . Adverbs Modifying Other Adverbs

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

61 61 63 63 64

THE PREPOSITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 The Prepositional Phrase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Adverb or Preposition? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 THE CONJUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 THE INTERJECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 DETERMINING PARTS OF SPEECH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 CHAPTER REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 A. Identifying Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections B. Identifying Different Parts of Speech C. Identifying Parts of Speech Writing Application: Using Verbs in a Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Complements CHAPTER

Direct and Indirect Objects, Subject Complements

...........

78

DIAGNOSTIC PREVIEW: Identifying Complements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 RECOGNIZING COMPLEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 OBJECTS OF VERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Direct Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Indirect Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 SUBJECT COMPLEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Predicate Nominatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Predicate Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 CHAPTER REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 A. Identifying Direct Objects and Indirect Objects B. Identifying Subject Complements C. Identifying Complements Writing Application: Using Objects in a Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

T6

Contents

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T02-T17

4/11/08

5:33 PM

Page T7

The Phrase CHAPTER

Prepositional, Verbal, and Appositive Phrases

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

DIAGNOSTIC PREVIEW: Identifying Prepositional, Verbal, and Appositive Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 WHAT IS A PHRASE? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 THE PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 The Adjective Phrase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 The Adverb Phrase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 VERBALS AND VERBAL PHRASES The Participle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Participial Phrase . . . . . . . . . . The Gerund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Gerund Phrase . . . . . . . . . . . . The Infinitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Infinitive Phrase . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

101 101 102 105 106 108 109

APPOSITIVES AND APPOSITIVE PHRASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 CHAPTER REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A. Identifying Prepositional, Verbal, and Appositive Phrases B. Identifying Gerunds and Gerund Phrases C. Identifying Verbals, Verbal Phrases, Appositives, and Appositive Phrases Writing Application: Using Prepositional Phrases in a Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

The Clause CHAPTER

Independent Clauses and Subordinate Clauses

..............

118

DIAGNOSTIC PREVIEW: Identifying Independent and Subordinate Clauses . . . . . . 118 WHAT IS A CLAUSE? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 THE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 THE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE The Adjective Clause . . . . . . The Adverb Clause . . . . . . . The Noun Clause . . . . . . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

121 124 127 130

Contents

T7

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T02-T17

4/11/08

5:33 PM

Page T8

CHAPTER REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 A. Identifying Subordinate Clauses B. Identifying Independent and Subordinate Clauses C. Identifying Adjective, Adverb, and Noun Clauses Writing Application: Writing a Specific Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

Sentence Structure CHAPTER

The Four Basic Sentence Structures

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

DIAGNOSTIC PREVIEW: Identifying the Four Kinds of Sentence Structure. . . . . . . . 138 WHAT IS SENTENCE STRUCTURE? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 SIMPLE SENTENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 COMPOUND SENTENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 COMPLEX SENTENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 CHAPTER REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 A. Identifying Sentence Structures B. Identifying Clauses in Compound, Complex, and Compound-Complex Sentences Writing Application: Using Sentence Variety in a Telephone Message . . . . . . . . 153

Agreement CHAPTER

Subject and Verb, Pronoun and Antecedent

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

DIAGNOSTIC PREVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 A. Identifying Verbs That Agree with Their Subjects B. Identifying Pronouns That Agree with Their Antecedents NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 AGREEMENT OF SUBJECT AND VERB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 PROBLEMS IN AGREEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Phrases and Clauses Between Subjects and Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Indefinite Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

T8

Contents

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T02-T17

4/11/08

5:34 PM

Page T9

Compound Subjects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Other Problems in Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 AGREEMENT OF PRONOUN AND ANTECEDENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 CHAPTER REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 A. Identifying Verbs That Agree with Their Subjects B. Identifying Pronouns That Agree with Their Antecedents C. Proofreading a Paragraph for Subject-Verb Agreement D. Proofreading Sentences for Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement Writing Application: Using Correct Agreement in a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

Using Verbs Correctly CHAPTER

Principal Parts, Regular and Irregular Verbs, Tense, Voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 DIAGNOSTIC PREVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 A. Using Correct Forms of Irregular Verbs B. Choosing the Forms of Lie and Lay, Sit and Set, and Rise and Raise C. Making Tenses of Verbs Consistent D. Identifying Active and Passive Voice THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A VERB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Regular Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Irregular Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 VERB TENSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Consistency of Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Active Voice and Passive Voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 SPECIAL PROBLEMS WITH VERBS Sit and Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lie and Lay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rise and Raise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

... .... .... ....

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

201 201 203 205

CHAPTER REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 A. Using the Present Participle, Past, and Past Participle Forms of Verbs B. Proofreading a Paragraph for Correct Verb Forms C. Identifying Active and Passive Voice Writing Application: Using Verb Forms in a Poem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

Contents

T9

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T02-T17

4/11/08

5:34 PM

Page T10

Using Pronouns Correctly CHAPTER

Case Forms of Pronouns; Special Pronoun Problems . . . . . . . . 214 DIAGNOSTIC PREVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 A. Proofreading for Correct Forms of Pronouns B. Identifying Correct Forms of Personal Pronouns C. Revising Sentences for Clear Pronoun Reference . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

216 218 221 225

SPECIAL PRONOUN PROBLEMS Who and Whom . . . . . . . . . . . . Appositives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reflexive Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . Clear Reference . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

225 225 227 227 230

CASE The The The

Jump Start reprinted by permission of United Feature Syndicate, Inc.

.............. Nominative Case Objective Case . . Possessive Case . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

CHAPTER REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 A. Identifying Correct Forms of Pronouns B. Proofreading Sentences for Correct Forms of Personal Pronouns C. Identifying Personal Pronouns and Their Uses D. Revising Sentences for Clear Pronoun Reference Writing Application: Using Pronouns in a Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

Using Modifiers Correctly CHAPTER

Comparison and Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 DIAGNOSTIC PREVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 A. Using the Correct Forms of Modifiers B. Correcting Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers WHAT IS A MODIFIER? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Adjective or Adverb? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 COMPARISON OF MODIFIERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Regular Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

T10

Contents

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T02-T17

4/11/08

5:34 PM

Page T11

Irregular Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Use of Comparative and Superlative Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 THE DOUBLE NEGATIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 PLACEMENT OF MODIFIERS Prepositional Phrases . . . . . . Participial Phrases . . . . . . . . . Adjective Clauses . . . . . . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

251 252 254 255

CHAPTER REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 A. Using the Correct Forms of Modifiers B. Correcting Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers C. Using Comparisons Correctly in Sentences D. Proofreading a Paragraph for Correct Use of Modifiers and Comparative and Superlative Forms Writing Application: Using Modifiers in a Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

A Glossary of Usage CHAPTER

Common Usage Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 DIAGNOSTIC PREVIEW: Identifying and Correcting Errors in Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 ABOUT THE GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 CHAPTER REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 A. Identifying Correct Usage B. Identifying and Correcting Errors in Usage C. Proofreading a Paragraph for Correct Usage Writing Application: Using Formal, Standard English in a Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

Capital Letters CHAPTER

Rules for Capitalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 DIAGNOSTIC PREVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 A. Proofreading Sentences for Correct Capitalization B. Proofreading Sentences for Correct Capitalization USING CAPITAL LETTERS CORRECTLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

Contents

T11

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T02-T17

4/11/08

5:34 PM

Page T12

CHAPTER REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 A. Proofreading Sentences for Correct Capitalization B. Proofreading a Paragraph for Correct Capitalization C. Using Capital Letters Correctly Writing Application: Using Capital Letters in an Essay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

Punctuation CHAPTER

End Marks, Commas, Semicolons, and Colons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 DIAGNOSTIC PREVIEW: Correcting Sentences by Adding End Marks, Commas, Semicolons, and Colons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 END MARKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 COMMAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Items in a Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compound Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interrupters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introductory Words, Phrases, and Clauses Conventional Situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

315 315 319 321 326 328

SEMICOLONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 COLONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 CHAPTER REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 A. Correcting Sentences by Adding Punctuation B. Correcting a Paragraph by Adding Periods, Question Marks, Exclamation Points, and Commas C. Correctly Using Semicolons and Colons Writing Application: Using Correct Punctuation in a Business Letter . . . . . . . . . . 339

Punctuation CHAPTER

Underlining (Italics), Quotation Marks, Apostrophes, Hyphens, Parentheses, Brackets, Dashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 DIAGNOSTIC PREVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 A. Proofreading Sentences for the Correct Use of Quotation Marks and Underlining (Italics)

T12

Contents

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T02-T17

4/11/08

5:35 PM

Page T13

B. Proofreading Sentences for the Correct Use of Apostrophes, Hyphens, Parentheses, Brackets, and Dashes UNDERLINING (ITALICS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 QUOTATION MARKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 APOSTROPHES . Possessive Case Contractions . . Plurals . . . . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

351 351 354 357

HYPHENS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 PARENTHESES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 BRACKETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 DASHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 CHAPTER REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 A. Proofreading Sentences for the Correct Use of Quotation Marks and Underlining (Italics) B. Proofreading Sentences for the Correct Use of Apostrophes, Hyphens, Parentheses, and Dashes C. Proofreading a Paragraph for the Correct Use of Punctuation D. Writing Sentences with Brackets and Parentheses Writing Application: Using Quotation Marks in a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367

Spelling CHAPTER

Improving Your Spelling

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

DIAGNOSTIC PREVIEW: Proofreading for Misspelled Words and Words Often Confused . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 GOOD SPELLING HABITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 SPELLING RULES . . . . . . . . . . ie and ei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –cede, –ceed, and –sede . . . . Adding Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . Adding Suffixes . . . . . . . . . . . Forming the Plurals of Nouns Spelling Numbers . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

370 370 371 372 373 376 379

WORDS OFTEN CONFUSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380

Contents

T13

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T02-T17

4/11/08

5:35 PM

Page T14

CHAPTER REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 A. Proofreading for Misspelled and Misused Words B. Using Words Often Confused C. Proofreading a Paragraph for Misspelled and Misused Words Writing Application: Using Words Correctly in an Essay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 SPELLING WORDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396

Correcting Common Errors CHAPTER

Key Language Skills Review

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398

GRAMMAR AND USAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 Grammar and Usage Test: Section 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 Grammar and Usage Test: Section 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 MECHANICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 Mechanics Test: Section 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Mechanics Test: Section 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432

T14

Contents

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T02-T17

4/11/08

PART 2 CHAPTER

5:35 PM

Page T15

Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434

Writing Effective Sentences

.............

436

DIAGNOSTIC PREVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 A. Identifying Sentences, Sentence Fragments, and Run-ons B. Combining Sentences C. Revising Stringy and Wordy Sentences D. Revising a Paragraph to Improve Sentence Style WRITING CLEAR SENTENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 Sentence Fragments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 Run-on Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 COMBINING Combining Combining Combining Combining

SENTENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by Inserting Words . . . . . . . . . . by Inserting Phrases . . . . . . . . . by Using Connecting Words . . . by Using a Subordinate Clause .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

444 445 446 449 451

IMPROVING SENTENCE STYLE . Revising Stringy Sentences . . . . Revising Wordy Sentences . . . . . Using Parallel Structure . . . . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

454 454 457 459

BEYOND SENTENCE STYLE . . Varying Sentence Beginnings Varying Sentence Structure . . Using Transitions . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

461 461 463 465

. . . .

. . . .

CHAPTER REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 A. Identifying Sentences, Sentence Fragments, and Run-ons B. Combining Sentences C. Revising a Passage to Improve Sentence Style

Contents

T15

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T02-T17

CHAPTER

4/11/08

5:35 PM

Page T16

Sentence Diagramming THE SENTENCE DIAGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subjects and Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjectives and Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subject Complements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verbals and Verbal Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subordinate Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sentences Classified According to Structure

T16

Contents

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

472

................... . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

472 472 475 477 478 480 482 486 488

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T02-T17

4/11/08

PART 3

5:36 PM

Page T17

Resources

....................................................

492

THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 Origins and Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 TEST SMARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 Becoming “Test-Smart” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 GRAMMAR AT A GLANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536 Acknowledgments

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551

Photo and Illustration Credits

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552

Contents

T17

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T18-T20

4/11/08

5:36 PM

Page T18

J o h n Wa r r i n e r : In Hi s O w n Wo r d s

John Warriner: In His Own Words

In the 1940s and ,50s, John Warriner (1907–1987) published his first grammar and composition textbooks. Mr. Warriner's goal as a teacher and as a writer was to help students learn to use English effectively in order to be successful in school and in life. Throughout the years that followed, Mr. Warriner revised his original books and wrote others, creating the series on which this textbook is based. Included in Mr. Warriner’s books were a number of short essays to his students. In these essays, Mr. Warriner explored the role of language in human life, the importance of studying English, and the value of mastering the conventions of standard English.

The name of John Warriner has long been associated with a rather formal style of teaching traditional school grammar. Interestingly, however, John Warriner did not consider himself primarily a grammarian but rather an English teacher. Also, he did not consider his books primarily grammar textbooks but rather reference handbooks for students and teachers of composition. In his prefaces to Handbook of English: Book One and Handbook of English: Book Two (published in 1948 and 1951, respectively), Warriner articulated his vision of what his textbooks were intended to do and how they might best be used. What he had to say might surprise you. First, Warriner’s goal in preparing these books was to create “a completely flexible teaching tool adaptable to . . . any individual classroom.” He did not design his books to be teaching texts in which the class moves sequentially from chapter to chapter, every student doing all the exercises along the way. In fact, he asserted just the opposite: “[A] book of this kind is not intended for methodical coverage from cover to cover. The book contains more material than any one class can handle in a single year. Teachers will teach those chapters that a particular class needs and will assign exercises in proportion to the need.”

We could tell you what John Warriner thought about the study of English, but we’d rather let you read what he himself had to say.

Language Is Human you ever thought “Have about how important

Warriner’s first grammar and composition textbooks, published in the 1940s and ‘50s.

xviii

T18

John Warriner

John Warriner

language is? Can you imagine what living would be like without it? “Of all creatures on earth, human beings alone have a fully developed language, which

enables them to communicate their thoughts to others in words, and which they can record in writing for others to read. Other creatures, dogs, for example, have ways of communicating their feelings, but they are very simple ways and very simple feelings. Without words, they must resort to mere noises, like barking, and to physical actions, like tail wagging. The point is that one very important difference between human beings and other creatures is the way human beings can communicate with one another

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T18-T20

4/11/08

by means of this remarkable thing called language. When you stop to think about it, you realize that language is involved to some extent in almost everything you do.



(from English Grammar and Composition: First Course, 1986)

Why Study English? reason English is a “Therequired subject in

almost all schools is that nothing in your education is more important than learning how to express yourself well. You may know a vast amount about a subject, but if you are unable to communicate what you know, you are severely handicapped. No matter how valuable your ideas may be,

Warriner’s English Grammar and Composition: Fourth Course, 1977

5:37 PM

Page T19

Warriner was also attuned to the needs of individual students within a class, acknowledging that “students arrive with greatly varying degrees of mastery of language essentials. One student may be weak in sentence sense, another in pronoun usage. But each student requires for his [or her] special weakness a full text explanation, a wealth of examples, and practice material,” which Warriner endeavored to provide.

they will not be very useful if you cannot express them clearly and convincingly. Language is the means by which people communicate. By learning how your language functions and by practicing language skills, you can acquire the competence necessary to express adequately what you know and what you think.



(from English Grammar and Composition: Fourth Course, 1977)

Why Study Grammar? rammar is a description of the way a language works. It explains many things. For example, grammar tells us the order in which sentence parts must be arranged. It explains the work done by the various kinds of words—the work done by a noun is different from the work done by a verb. It explains how words change their form according to the way they are used. Grammar is useful because it enables us to make statements about how to use our language. These statements we usually call rules. “The grammar rule that the normal order of an English sentence is subject-verb-object may not seem very important to us, because English is our native tongue and we naturally

“G

Warriner’s English Grammar and Composition: Third Course, 1982

use this order without thinking. But the rule would be very helpful to people who are learning English as a second language. However, the rule that subjects and verbs ‘agree’ (when the subject is plural, the verb is plural), and the rule that some pronouns (I, he, she, we, they) are used as subjects while others (me, him, her, us, them) are used as objects—these are helpful rules even for native speakers of English. “Such rules could not be understood—in fact, they could not be formed—without the vocabulary of grammar. Grammar, then, helps us to state how English is used and how we should use it.



(from English Grammar and Composition: Third Course, 1982)

John Warriner

To organize his material, Warriner separated language instruction into sections, choosing to present grammar before usage. His rationale for doing so was that a working understanding of grammar terms and concepts would provide students and teachers a common vocabulary for discussing usage concepts. However, Warriner was not comfortable with the implications of such a separation: “This is not to imply that grammar can be separated from usage in practice. The only valid reason for teaching grammar at all is to apply it to specific usage problems [emphasis added].” Finally, in spite of his reputation as a grammar curmudgeon, John Warriner had some rather modern ideas about language. He believed that English was an evolving language and that appropriate usage varied according to the situation. In fact, Warriner was adamant that a language arts textbook “must make clear to students that correctness in English is not fixed, but variable, that there are levels of usage, and that any living language suffers change.”

xix

John Warriner

T19

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T18-T20

4/11/08

5:37 PM

Page T20

Why Is Punctuation Important? sole purpose of punc“Thetuation is to make clear

the meaning of what you write. When you speak, the actual sound of your voice, the rhythmic rise and fall of your inflections, your pauses and hesitations, your stops to take breath—all supply a kind of ‘punctuation’ that serves to group your words and to indicate to your listener precisely what you mean. Indeed, even the body takes part in this unwritten punctuation. A raised eyebrow may express interrogation more eloquently than any question mark, and a knuckle rapped on

English Grammar and Composition: Fourth Course, 1973

xx

T20

John Warriner

John Warriner

the table shows stronger feeling than an exclamation point. “In written English, however, where there are none of these hints to meaning, simple courtesy requires the writer to make up for the lack by careful punctuation.



(from English Grammar and Composition: Fourth Course, 1973)

Why Learn Standard English? the following “Consider pair of sentences:

1. George don’t know the answer. 2. George doesn’t know the answer. “Is one sentence clearer or more meaningful than the other? It’s hard to see how. The speaker of sentence 1 and the speaker of sentence 2 both convey the same message about George and his lack of knowledge. If language only conveyed information about the people and events that a speaker is discussing, we would have to say that one sentence is just as good as the other. However, language often carries messages the speaker does not intend. The words he uses to tell us about

events often tell us something about the speaker himself. The extra, unintended message conveyed by ‘George don’t know the answer’ is that the speaker does not know or does not use one verb form that is universally preferred by educated users of English. “Perhaps it is not fair to judge people by how they say things rather than by what they say, but to some extent everyone does it. It’s hard to know what is in a person’s head, but the language he uses is always open to inspection, and people draw conclusions from it. The people who give marks and recommendations, who hire employees or judge college applications, these and others who may be important in your life are speakers of educated English. You may not be able to impress them merely by speaking their language, but you are likely to impress them unfavorably if you don’t. The language you use tells a lot about you. It is worth the trouble to make sure that it tells the story you want people to hear.



(from English Grammar and Composition: Fourth Course, 1973)

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T21-T23

4/11/08

5:38 PM

Page T21

TO OUR

STUDENTS What is grammar? That seems like a simple question, doesn’t it? Most of us have a sense of what grammar is even though we are seldom asked to define the term. Many people use the term grammar to mean “the rules of language.” In this book, however, grammar has a more specific meaning. Here, grammar refers to the structure of language— to the words, phrases, and clauses that are the building blocks of sentences. Grammar gives us the labels we use to talk about language. What about the rules that govern how language is used in various social situations? In this book, these rules are called usage. Unlike grammar, usage determines what is considered standard (“isn’t”) or nonstandard (“ain’t”) and what is considered formal (“why”) or informal (“how come”). Usage is a social convention, a behavior or rule that is customary among members of a group. As a result, what is considered acceptable usage can vary from group to group and from situation to situation. To speak standard English requires a knowledge of grammar and of standard usage. To write standard English requires something more—a knowledge of mechanics. Mechanics refers to the rules for written, rather than spoken, language. Spelling, capitalization, and punctuation are concepts we don’t even think about when we are speaking, but they are vital to writing effectively.

Why should I study grammar, usage, and mechanics? Many people would say that you should study grammar to learn to root out errors in your speech and writing. Certainly, the Holt Handbook can help you learn to avoid making errors and to correct the errors you do make. More importantly, though, studying grammar, usage, and mechanics gives you the skills you need to take To Our Students

xxi

To Our Students

T21

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T21-T23

4/11/08

5:39 PM

Page T22

sentences and passages apart and to put them together, to learn which parts go together and which don’t. Instead of writing sentences and passages that you hope sound good, you can craft your sentences to create just the meaning and style you want. Knowing grammar, usage, and mechanics gives you the tools to understand and discuss your own language, to communicate clearly the things you want to communicate, and to develop your own communication style. Further, mastery of language skills can help you succeed in your other classes, in future classes, on standardized tests, and in the larger world—including, eventually, the workplace.

How do I use the Holt Handbook? The skills taught in the Holt Handbook are important to your success in reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Not only can you use this book as a complete grammar, usage, and mechanics textbook, but you can also use it as a reference guide when you work on any piece of writing. Whether you are writing a personal letter, a report for your social studies class, or some other piece of writing, you can use the Holt Handbook to answer your questions about grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling. How is the Holt Handbook organized? The Holt Handbook is divided into three main parts: PART 1 The Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics chapters provide

instruction on and practice using the building blocks of language— words, phrases, clauses, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling. Use these chapters to discover how to take sentences apart and analyze them. The last chapter, Correcting Common Errors, provides additional practice on key language skills as well as standardized test practice in grammar, usage, and mechanics. PART 2 The Sentences chapters include Writing

Effective Sentences and Sentence Diagramming. Writing Effective Sentences provides instruction on

and practice with writing correct, clear, and interesting sentences. Sentence Diagramming teaches you to analyze and diagram sentences so you can see how the parts of a sentence relate to each other. xxii

T22

To Our Students

To Our Students

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T21-T23

4/11/08

5:39 PM

Page T23

PART 3 The Resources section includes The History of English, a concise history of the English language; Test Smarts, a handy guide to taking standardized tests in grammar, usage, and mechanics; and Grammar at a Glance, a glossary of grammatical terms.

How are the chapters organized? Each chapter begins with a Diagnostic Preview, a short test that covers the whole chapter and alerts you to skills that need improvement, and ends with a Chapter Review, another short test that tells you how well you have mastered that chapter. In between, you’ll see rules, which are basic statements of grammar, usage, and mechanics principles. The rules are illustrated with examples and followed by exercises and reviews that help you practice what you have learned. What are some other features of this textbook? ■ Oral Practice—spoken practice and reinforcement of rules and concepts ■ Writing Applications—activities that let you apply grammar, usage, and mechanics concepts in your writing ■ Tips & Tricks—easy-to-use hints about grammar, usage, and mechanics ■ Meeting the Challenge—questions or short activities that ask you to approach a concept from a new angle ■ Style Tips—information about formal and informal uses of language ■ Help—pointers to help you understand either key rules and concepts or exercise directions

Holt Handbook on the Internet As you move through the Holt Handbook, you will find the best online resources at go.hrw.com.

To Our Students

xxiii

To Our Students

T23

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T24-T25

4/11/08

4:35 PM

Page T24

Writing Assignments

Teaching Strands Connecting Grammar and Writing This teaching-strand chart shows you some ways to connect grammar instruction and writing instruction. The Holt Handbook is designed to be a flexible teaching tool that accommodates many teaching philosophies and styles. For example, some teachers will prefer to use the handbook as a reference source, having students refer to it only as the need for explicit grammar instruction arises. Others will use the handbook as a teaching text, having their classes work through the instruction, examples, and exercises in a more methodical fashion. Your personal teaching style and the needs of your students will determine the best way for you to teach this material.

NARRATION

RESPONSE TO LITERATURE

TECHNICAL DOCUMENTS

RESEARCH

GO TO: go.hrw.com

PERSUASION

T24

Rationale

Writers of personal narratives use first person to tell their stories. To explain their ideas, writers usually choose chronological order, which can be indicated by adverbs, adverb phrases, and adverb clauses, but they must watch for stringy sentences as they describe the action. Dialogue, colorful modifiers, and sentence variety will enliven the narratives. In a book evaluation, carefully chosen words can capture the work’s essence. A reviewer will cite titles, details, and direct quotations from the book, all of which must be properly capitalized and punctuated. Using adjective clauses helps the writer avoid short, choppy sentences.

Explaining a complex process requires precise thinking and writing. Signal words, properly set off, indicate an inference drawn or a chronological step. Accurate and consistent verb tenses maintain order. Correctly punctuated phrases may define unique terms or new vocabulary. Writers initially pose questions to guide their research. In developing and phrasing answers to these questions, writers must be careful to use correctly punctuated subordinate clauses and correct subject-verb and pronounantecedent agreement. Citing references for supporting data requires correct capitalization and punctuation. To interest and persuade readers, writers of persuasive essays use strong verbs, correct forms of adjectives and adverbs, and varied sentence beginnings and structures as well as precise language that is appropriate to the audience. Support involves a skillful blend of reasons, evidence, and emotional appeals.

NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T24-T25

4/11/08

4:35 PM

Links to Grammar

Page T25

Links to Usage

Links to Mechanics

 first-person pronouns (Ch. 2)

 pronoun case (Ch. 10)

 capitalization of I (Ch. 13)

 adverbs (Ch. 3); phrases (Ch. 5); clauses (Ch. 6)

 placement of phrases and clauses (Ch. 11)

 punctuation of compound and complex sentences (Ch. 14)

 sentence structures (Ch. 7); kinds of sentences (Ch. 1)

 subject-verb agreement (Ch. 8)

 end punctuation (Ch. 14); capitalization and punctuation of dialogue (Ch. 13 & Ch. 15)

 adjectives, nouns (Ch. 2)

 adjective forms (Ch. 11)

 spelling suffixes (Ch. 16)

 pronouns (Ch. 2); complements (Ch. 4); adjective clauses, relative pronouns (Ch. 6)

 pronoun case using who and whom (Ch. 10); who, which, that (Ch. 12); placement of adjective clauses (Ch. 11)

 punctuating essential and nonessential clauses (Ch. 14)

 kinds of sentences (Ch. 1); sentence structure (Ch. 7)

 capitalizing and punctuating titles and quotations (Ch. 13 & Ch. 15)

 adverbs (Ch. 3)

 adverb forms (Ch. 11)

 punctuating introductory words and phrases (Ch. 14)

 verbs (Ch. 3)

 verb tense (Ch. 9)

 verbal and appositive phrases (Ch. 5)

 placement of phrases (Ch. 11)

 punctuating parenthetical material (Ch. 15)

 interrogatory sentences (Ch. 1); relative clauses (Ch. 6)

 who, whom (Ch. 10)

 end punctuation and commas (Ch. 14)

 pronouns (Ch. 2); subjects and predicates (Ch. 1); complements (Ch. 4)

 subject-verb and pronounantecedent agreement (Ch. 8)

 capitalizing and punctuating titles in citations (Ch. 13–15)

 action verbs (Ch. 3)

 consistency of tense (Ch. 9)

 adjectives, adverbs (Ch. 2 & Ch. 3); verbal phrases (Ch. 5); clauses (Ch. 6); sentence structure (Ch. 7)

 correct use of modifiers, placement of modifiers (Ch. 11)

 punctuation of compound-complex sentences, semicolons between independent clauses, colons before lists and examples (Ch. 14)

T25

CA_NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T26-T47

4/11/08

5:16 PM

Page T26

E S S AY S O N T E A C H I N G G R A M M A R

By Amy Benjamin

Dispelling the Myths about Grammar Instruction because those lessons in syntax, placement, word classification, and the subtleties of style helped them to be better writers, more efficient readers, clearer thinkers.

I

t is not uncommon for English teachers as well

as their trainers and supervisors to hold that the teaching of grammar is quaint and unnecessary at best, prejudicial and exclusionary at worst. I know an excellent English teacher whose students, many years after graduation, remember her for her grammar lessons. Unfortunately, instead of being proud of this, she is chagrined. . . . “Grammar!? Of all things in my class to remember! Why grammar? Why can’t they remember me for all the wonderful literature I taught them? for what I taught them

T26

Essays on Teaching Grammar

about composition? expression? creativity? Why just grammar? I don’t even teach grammar anymore. I teach the writing process.” Perhaps these students remembered their grammar lessons because of the usefulness of those lessons or because of the satisfaction that they derived from learning challenging material. Perhaps they remembered

How lamentable it is that teaching writing through a process approach has become an orthodoxy in which the grammatical strand of English language arts is pitted against the literary strand, as if the two are not intertwined. Who set up this false dichotomy? The notion that grammar instruction is antithetical to the

CA_NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T26-T47

4/11/08

5:17 PM

writing process is specious. My purpose in this essay is to debunk some of the myths about grammar instruction and to refurbish its tarnished reputation. It is not uncommon for English teachers as well as their trainers and supervisors to hold that the teaching of grammar is quaint and unnecessary at best, prejudicial and exclusionary at worst. The problem begins with muddy terminology. Some people conflate the terms grammar, usage, and mechanics, as well as the terms correct/incorrect and standard/ nonstandard. Before I turn my fire extinguisher on the grammar myths, let me clarify my terms: By grammar, I refer to the rules which govern how words function in a sentence to make meaning. That man bites dog means something different from dog bites man is a function of grammar. By usage, I refer to the social conventions that determine what is considered standard. By standard, I do not mean correct. I mean that style of the English language which most educated people accept in formal circumstances. By mechanics, I refer to physical manifestations of language such as spelling, punctuation, capitalization and other conventions. In the case of mechanics, the terms correct and incorrect are more appropriate than they are when we are talking about matters of usage, but even spelling is not without gray areas. Reasonable people can disagree over matters of content and methodology in teaching. However, I think everyone would agree that to under-

Page T27

stand a complicated system we need to know the names of its parts, their forms and functions, how the parts relate to the whole, and where these parts belong if the system is to operate at maximum efficiency. That said, here’s what some people say about grammar instruction, and why I disagree with them.

Myth #1: The explicit teaching of grammar does not improve writing ability, so time spent on grammar is time not spent on more worthy pursuits in the English classroom. Think about it. Suppose my car is making a funny noise. Suppose I have no better understanding of what is going on under the hood than that. I take it to my mechanic, trusting his knowledge, integrity, and skill. He’ll figure out what’s wrong with my car and fix the problem. I’ll pay the bill, and if all is not well, I’ll get either another mechanic or another car. That is how many car owners (myself included) operate. We don’t have the time or the inclination to learn the taxonomy, nomenclature, and anatomy of our cars. When we don’t speak explicitly to students about grammar, syntax, diction, and coherence, we have to resort to the “funny noise” method: We have to say “This part just doesn’t sound right here,” or “You’re not saying this clearly.” We may be able to help writers

fix the sentence, but we haven’t given them the generality that will allow them to apply what they’ve learned to similar circumstances. On the other hand, I can know the names of all the tools in my toolbox, what each is for, and how they relate to one another; but if I don’t use them to facilitate an actual job in progress, then my knowledge does not fulfill its intended purpose. For many of us, the grammar lessons that we learned in school were about “picking out.” We’d “pick out” all kinds of structures: the parts of speech, subjects and predicates, simple subjects, helping verbs. Later, we’d hunt down adverbial clauses, subject complements, infinitives. We’d underline and double underline. We’d diagram. The trouble with our instruction was not that it was misguided, but that it was unfinished. Having learned to spot prepositional phrases, we may not have learned why doing so could improve our discourse. How can we use our ability to identify grammatical structures such as prepositional phrases in our own reading and writing? We may have learned that the object of a preposition must be in the objective case, and that the object of a preposition is never the subject of the sentence. This knowledge helps us solve some usage problems, but that is not its main value. Knowing how to discern the subject and verb can help us read dense prose. When reading dense prose, the reader needs strategies. One such strategy is to reduce the sentence Essays on Teaching Grammar

T27

CA_NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T26-T47

4/11/08

5:17 PM

to its subject and verb. That done, the reader sees prepositional phrases for what they are: details. Beyond that, knowing about prepositions helps writers add sentence variety, as they learn not to begin sentence after sentence with the subject. Beginning a sentence with a prepositional phrase can set the stage for the action, but we have to be judicious: Sometimes, that prepositional phrase can be distracting or redundant. As modifiers, prepositional phrases can be movable, and their placement affects meaning, rhythm, and emphasis. Prepositional phrases, “time and place words,” add detail and dimension. The novice writer who has difficulty fleshing out a topic can do well to consciously add more prepositional phrases. It is knowing what prepositional phrases can and can’t do for you that makes being able to identify them worthwhile. Selecting standard pronoun case, creating purposeful variety in sentence structure, adding detail and dimension, and eliminating redundancy are some good reasons for being able to recognize prepositional phrases.

I

t is knowing what prepositional phrases

can and can’t do for you that makes being able to identify them worthwhile.

T28

Essays on Teaching Grammar

Page T28

Recognition of a grammatical structure is only the beginning. If we think of grammar instruction as building an awareness of language choices available to the careful writer, then we view such instruction in two phases: recognition and application. Too often, the application phase does not happen. When it does not, the recognition phase seems to lack practicality. Thus does grammar instruction fall out of favor.

Myth #2: Grammar instruction applies only to the editing phase of the writing process. When people operate under this myth, they are confusing grammar with usage and mechanics. Usage and mechanics may be seen as “touchups,” part of the finishing-off of a written piece. As such, they are not essential to the real intellectual work of the process, although no one should minimize their importance. Usage and mechanics can determine the first and last impressions that the reader gets of the writer’s work. The point is that we should not limit our understanding of grammar to the surface features of usage and mechanics. Along with diction and rhetoric, grammar (unlike usage and mechanics) is organic to the crafting of sentences and text. Writers with an awareness of grammar can make informed choices about how word order affects meaning. Picture a

carpenter. He doesn’t just blindly reach into his toolbox, pull out a screwdriver, try to make it do the work of a wrench, and figure he’ll just sand down the rough spots later. We can make our students better writers if we teach them to use grammatical knowledge consciously as they match their syntax to their intentions. We understand the power of graphic organizers in both reading and writing for many learners. We teach students to map their ideas as a prewriting strategy. We teach them to make Venn diagrams to show similarities and differences, and flowcharts to express sequence. Sentence structures are patterns. We can think in terms of certain grammatical templates, containers, that work well for certain types of ideas. Parallel structure and compound sentences or simple sentences with compound constituents are good containers for like elements bearing equal importance. Complex sentences are good containers to use when we need to show the backgrounding and foregrounding of elements that do not bear equal importance. Sentence structure selections occur in the drafting and revision stages of the writing process, as the writer searches for the clearest, most efficient way to express thoughts. Many writers have an intuitive sense of what kinds of containers work best with what kinds of ideas. When we bring this underlying awareness of grammar to the conscious level, we help students manage inchoate ideas in the same way

CA_NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T26-T47

4/11/08

5:18 PM

that a graphic organizer, such as a Venn diagram, might. Indeed, there is much to be said for using one of the many versions of graphic organizers along with sentence structure templates. The writer can then look at a branch diagram or a cluster, decide how the ideas are related, and then consider an array of syntactical containers to suit them. What I’ve described is a way of understanding the role of grammar in the writing process that is deeper than what is commonly thought, i.e., that grammatical thinking enters the picture only as the cleanup man. In fact, we already make intuitive grammatical choices as we compose our thoughts. Those intuitive choices may or may not be the best ones for the purpose. By building awareness of sentence and textual structure, we can increase our chances that our message is clear, efficient, and graceful.

Myth #3: Grammar is boring. There are many ways to make our classrooms boring. We can “cover material” in a perfunctory way, “going over” the exercises done for homework or as seatwork. We can convey to students that their language is “wrong” and ours is “right.” We can be language prudes, fainting and blanching at every double negative or misplaced modifier that dares to show its face in our presence. We can insist that the answer key is always the authority and that grammar is a “no

Page T29

discussion” subject. We can isolate the study of grammar, treat it as something we “have to get through” before moving on to literature. We can fail to make any connection between grammar and journalism, grammar and advertising, grammar and novels, grammar and drama, grammar and music, grammar and poetry. These are ways to make grammar boring.

I

’ve heard teachers claim that grammar instruction

interferes with creativity. I’ve heard teachers claim that grammar instruction interferes with creativity. “Grammar is boring,” they say. “And writing should be fun and interesting.” This is a misguided notion, because creativity thrives within structure. The sonneteer works within a strictly prescribed structure, choosing that structure because it is the best container for particular ideas. The sonnet form is not constraining but liberating: The format frees the writer from decisions about rhythm and rhyme scheme. Because of the structure, half the work is done. I can’t think of any creative pursuit—music, fine arts, dance, photography, drama, writing—that does not demand mastery of technique. I can’t think of any creative pursuit in which there is no terminology, no anatomy, no structure, no tradition, no rules. Why would learning any kind of writing, much less creative writing, be

detached from the fundamentals? Knowledge of structure is not a hindrance, but a guide that enables, rather than impedes, creativity. Sometimes, grammar instruction is thought of as “drill and kill.” This pejorative implies that the instruction will consist of lower level thinking skills, mindless repetition, and lack of application to authentic language. We picture fill-in-the-blank workbooktype questions in which there is one right answer. The book that you have in your hands is an extremely useful, in fact indispensable, tool for the teaching of language. However, any grammar text is most effective when used along with, not in place of, literature and student writing. It might seem that students would naturally make the crossover from what they learn in grammar exercises to their own language use, but such is not necessarily the case. As teachers, we have to make that crossover happen very deliberately, pointing out structures that students have learned and how those structures are used to make meaning in authentic contexts. Thus does grammar instruction transcend the practice exercises that illustrate targeted concepts. Everybody loves language; children and teenagers love it especially, because they are in the process of defining their own culture by laying claim to words and expressions all their own. When we invite students to analyze their own neologisms, grammatical idiosyncrasies, and dialectical styles, we enliven grammar lessons immeasurably. As English teachers, we Essays on Teaching Grammar

T29

CA_NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T26-T47

4/11/08

5:18 PM

embrace all forms of the English language even while we recognize that mastery of standard English is essential for success in certain precincts of society. Another way to make grammar instruction interesting is to let students discover how language changes right before our eyes. Movies and novels set in various pockets of the English-speaking world are museums of linguistic anthropology. Compare the idioms of To Kill A Mockingbird to those of The Color Purple. Analyze the language of a movie set in New Orleans and compare it to the language of a movie set in Los Angeles. There are many ways to make our classrooms interesting. Our love of the subject is contagious. Grammar is exciting and rewarding to learn not because we get the answers right, but because we’ve applied logic and found patterns, and because there may be more than one answer, depending on the circumstances, audience, and purpose. Contrary to myth, a good grammar lesson can invite a lively discussion about ambiguities in meaning and the best way to express thought in a particular context. It can even ignite a discussion about social power structures, prejudices, and immigration. This is not boring stuff.

Myth #4: Grammar applies only to English classes. For lack of a better term, we refer to subjects other than English as “content

T30

Essays on Teaching Grammar

Page T30

areas.” Aside from the obvious expectation that we use standard English in school, how can students apply grammar to their content area classes? Every teacher wants students to be better readers. A law student told me recently that she was glad that she knew something about grammar, because she needed it to read complex materials in her courses. She found that by mentally pulling out the subject and verb, she could follow the lines of technical text. Needless to say, grammatical knowledge of the English language is essential for learning another language. Just as grammar has fallen out of favor in many English classes, it has suffered a similar blow in the pedagogy of learning other languages as well, where grammar instruction has been supplanted by “conversation.” The predictable consequence has been much confusion and frustration for both teachers, who feel that their hands are tied, and students, many of whom are bewildered by the gymnastics of the French verb when they don’t even know how English verbs behave. What about science, math, social studies, the arts? All teachers love words. The biology teacher is fussy about the difference between osmosis and diffusion. Getting students to make fine distinctions is an important part of teaching students to think like scientists. Teachers want to give away the words of their subject areas the way grandmothers want to give away food. We want to invite our students

into the professional conversation of our subject areas.

T

eachers want to give away the words of

their subject areas the way grandmothers want to give away food. As English teachers, we love words about words, language about language. To us, there is a vast difference between an action verb and a linking verb, a predicate nominative and a direct object, a transitive verb and an intransitive verb. In teaching students to talk the talk, we turn them into licensed operators, not just amateurs. A licensed operator can make the machinery run more efficiently, can anticipate potential problems, and can fix what is wrong. An amateur hopes that the sentence “sounds good.” Grammar should be the permeable membrane that allows knowledge learned in English class to transform into skill in the content area classes. Active voice may be preferable in English classes where the subject is often people doing things (S-V-O). In composing a lab report, however, passive voice may be the better choice. The difference in pressure was recorded might sound more scientific than I recorded the difference in pressure. In the language of lab reports, the fact that the technician did the action is

CA_NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T26-T47

4/11/08

5:19 PM

irrelevant. A radiologist writes her report in the passive voice: No abnormalities were found, rather than I found no abnormalities. In English class, we show students the difference in tone between active and passive voice. It is important to learn to think in action verbs in all subject areas. A student who is writing about the Reformation needs to focus on who did what: Martin Luther translated the Bible into the German vernacular. His translation enabled more people to read the Bible. The action verbs tell the story. They give students a starting point when writing and a focus when reading. All subject areas use this concept; it is we English teachers who actually teach it in our grammar lessons.

Page T31

The social studies teacher and the science teacher may not know it, but the benefits of grammar instruction are carried through the student’s entire day.

Myth #5: Grammar instruction is ethnocentric and prejudicial. As English teachers, we need to avoid giving the impression that we are the designated Keepers of the Language. We can teach the etiquette of standard English without denying a student the right to his or her own dialect. An educated person has that social thermostat that linguists call codeswitching. The metaphor of table manners is apt: What we are expected to do at an outdoor barbecue differs from what we’re expected to do at Thanksgiving dinner. Those of us who can’t tell the difference, who can’t code-switch, are socially awkward. This is not to say that standard English is better than any particular dialect. Standard English is not more expressive, more poetic, or even more accurate. It is simply the expected currency of mainstream society in formal situations. We don’t have to use it all of the time, but if we can’t use it when it is expected, then we are at a cultural disadvantage that our education should remedy. We are constantly making impressions that indicate our understanding of our social context. Those who are successful in their chosen fields,

indeed, those for whom a chosen field is an option in the first place, know how to control the impression that others have of them. People judge our status and education levels not only through language, but also through dress, manners, and gesture. Once we acknowledge that standard English is just another form of English that is appropriate for certain situations but not for all, then we are free to enjoy the dialects of English that we find in authentic literature, regional speech, song lyrics, and casual conversation. We can look at new coinages, popular metaphors, slang, and jargon with the interest of a linguist rather than the arrogance of a pedant.

W

e can teach the etiquette of

Standard English without denying a student the right to his or her own dialect. That language is a changing social contract is evidenced by grammar books of yore. Even in one generation, the who/whom distinction has attenuated, as has the use of the past perfect tense of verbs. Certain usages, such as the nominative case after a linking verb, sound stuffy. We have yet to solve the problem that exists because we lack a generic singular pronoun: He,

Essays on Teaching Grammar

T31

CA_NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T26-T47

4/11/08

5:20 PM

Second Course Grammar • Usage • Mechanics • Sentences TEACHER’S EDITION NAT_GUM_Hbk_ATE08_FM_T02-T17 4/12/08 8:29 ...

Author: John E. Warriner


131 downloads 378 Views 67MB Size

One thought on “Vocabulary Workshop Second Course Lesson 28 Homework

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *