“Nationalism united people into nation- states, toppled empires composed of many ethnic minorities, and contributed to the outbreak of wars in the nineteenth century. How would you evaluate this statement?”
Nationalism is a common patriotic passion for one’s nation and fellow nationals that united, and still unites certain groups of people. Nationalism can cause for the birth of loyalty to ethnic minorities, which have potential to cause many historically significant events. It was a force that caused conflict in, and shaped the paths of Italy, Germany and France, among the other great European powers of the time.
In France, on August 23, 1793 the “Levee en Masse” greatly impacted French society. The Levee en Masse was in a way, a draft to rally support of the citizens. It showed nationalism because it required the people to work for the greater good of a nation. (Document 1) Since patriotism is one of the key factors of nationalism, the Levee en Masse is a perfect illustration of the effects of nationalism on French society. Another example of French nationalism is shown in Document 2, which consists of an excerpt of the French National Anthem. The French National Anthem urges the French to fight for their right to liberty against cruel tyrants. This is shown in the following quote: “Arise, children of the fatherland…Against us cruel tyrants March on, march on, To liberty or death!”
Another group of people that was heavily impacted by the effects of nationalism were the Italian people. In 1850, Italy was ruled by many different empires. They were separate states with no unification whatsoever. The Northern regions were richer than the south, and the two areas had nothing in common. Italy had lack of unity, which is shown in the fact that Mazzini wanted a Republic, the Pope wanted a confederation, and Charles Albert wanted a kingdom. When Cavour rose as a prominent nationalist figure in Italy, he used many tactics to promote nationalism. He encouraged trade, expanded the transportation options, promoted agricultural production, and joined Britain and France in the Crimenian war against Russia. These tactics eventually proved to create unity in Italy because of a common economy, industry and common enemies. This is supported by Boyd Shafer’s saying that for nationalism to exist, it is necessary for people to share a common enemy, a common pride in achievements, and some common economic institution.
Another Italian Nationalist figure in Italy was Giuseppe Garibaldi. In 1861 he made a speech in which he tried to unify the Italian masses who were truly devoted to the nation. In his speech, he called for a greater commitment in an attempt to weed out hypocrisy. He uses the metaphor, “Let him who loves his country in his heart, and not with his lips only, follow me.” (Document 4)
In the 1800’s, German was spoken all through Prussia, the western half of the Austrian Empire, and many small states. There was much conflict in uniting the German states, including religious conflict. Otto von Bismark was a nationalist who lived during this time, who, “…some people feel single-handedly unified Germany and started it on its road to greatness.” Bismark’s method was crafty. He united Germany by creating a common enemy, and by fueling war. He expresses this in the metaphor “blood and iron.” (Document 5)
Nationalism’s influence on the development of the great European powers will not soon be forgotten. Under the watchful eye of great leaders such as Cavour, Garibaldi, von Bismark, and Mazzini, Nationalism tore apart great empires, united nation- states that had previously suffered from long standing conflict, and fueled many progressive wars. Allegiance and zeal for ones nation is what sparks nationalism, and nationalism is what sparks change.
nineteenth Century Europe was greatly influenced by Nationalism. Nationalism sparked alteration in Europe through sovereignty and liberty. Nationalism broke down aging imperiums and acted as force for disunity. In an act of trueness to their state. people brought fusion to Italy and Germany. the Ottoman and the Austro-Hungarian imperiums began to crumple. and the effusion of wars such as the Franco-Prussian War and the Seven Weeks’ War came approximately.
Patriotism was a cardinal factor in edifice states. Throughout the old ages Italians were turning impatient and disgruntled under foreign regulation. Count Cavour was responsible for the encephalons behind the fusion of Italy. He believed that let go ofing the Italians from foreign regulation would non merely leave the state important and superb but besides provide the people with intelligence and cognition ( Doc. 3 ) . Italian Nationalists looked up to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia because of their power over the Italian provinces. In 1848. the land had adopted a broad fundamental law. So to the in-between category progressives. fusion under Piedmont Sardinia was appealing.
Giuseppe Garibaldi. the leader of ground forces of patriots. captured Sicily. After processing across the Italian mainland their was an understanding to allow the Sardinian male monarch regulation. Like Italy. Germany achieved national integrity around the same clip.
The Austrian Empire took over the German alliance ; nevertheless. Prussia was prepared to unite them. Prussia had a mainly German imperium. Therefore. patriotism genuinely incorporate Prussia. When Bismarck took control. he was a maestro of practical politics. Bismarck’s method for unifying Germany was through blood and Fe ( Doc 5 ) . He believed that the power of Germany should be allocated over all German People. In his eyes. war was the lone option to accomplishing success.
When patriotism emerged in the nineteenth Century. cultural struggle threatened and finally wiped out some of the staying imperiums. After the Prussians triumph in the Austro-Prussian War. Prussia gained control of the freshly organized North German Confederation. Pressured by the Hungarians. Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria split his imperium in half. declaring Austria and Hungary independent provinces. Nationalism continued to breakdown this imperium for more than 40 old ages until after World War 1 were it broke into several separate states.
Patriotism was the cardinal ingredient in the separation of provinces including the Czechs. Romanians. Austrians. Italians. Serbians and Hungarians. throughout the Austro-Hungarian Empire ( Doc. 7 ) . The Ottoman Empire shortly began to weaken every bit good. The Ottoman Empire was controlled by governing Turks. The Empire granted equal citizenship to all people under their regulation after they felt force per unit area from British and Gallic. This action angered conservative Turks who were against alteration and caused strain in the imperium. In response to patriotism. similar to the Austrian Empire. the Ottoman Empire began to crumple shortly after World War 1.
Patriotism in states caused eruptions of War. Bismarck intentionally stirred up boundary line struggles with Austria over Schleswig and Holstein. The tensenesss caused Austria to declare war on Prussia in 1866. This statement was known as the Seven Weeks’ War. The Prussians won a annihilating triumph. Peoples who genuinely have faith in their state will happen success in war ( Doc 4. ) As a consequence of Prussian triumph. Austria had to accept Prussian appropriation of more German Territory. Prussia took control of Northern Germany.
By 1867. merely a few southern German provinces remained independent from Prussian control. Bismarck felt he could win the support of Southerners if they faced a menace from outside. Frances national anthem urged the Gallic to contend for their values and to take a base. They must contend till the coating to liberty or decease ( Doc. 2 ) . The Gallic declared war on Prussia in 1870. The Prussian ground forces rapidly headed for northern France. The Franco Prussian war was the concluding phase in German Unification. Nationalism began distributing to people in southern Germany. where they eventually accepted Prussian leading. Bismarck used what he believed was the cardinal factor to success. Blood and Iron.
Patriotism brought approximately much trueness throughout Europe. Patriotism sparked fusion of Italy and Germany. dissolution of aging imperiums such as Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian. and eruptions of war including Franco-Prussian and Seven Weeks’ War. Nationalism had a major influence on 19th Century Europe.
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