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Opll Classification Essay

1. Tsuyama N. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1984;(184):71–84.[PubMed]

2. Wang MY, Thambuswamy M. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in non-Asians: demographic, clinical, and radiographic findings in 43 patients. Neurosurg Focus. 2011;30:E4.[PubMed]

3. Ehara S, Shimamura T, Nakamura R, Yamazaki K. Paravertebral ligamentous ossification: DISH, OPLL and OLF. Eur J Radiol. 1998;27:196–205.[PubMed]

4. Guo Q, Ni B, Yang J, Zhu Z, Yang J. Simultaneous ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and ossification of the ligamentum flavum causing upper thoracic myelopathy in DISH: case report and literature review. Eur Spine J. 2011;20(Suppl 2):S195–S201.[PubMed]

5. Khedr EM, Rashad SM, Hamed SA, El-Zharaa F, Abdalla AK. Neurological complications of ankylosing spondylitis: neurophysiological assessment. Rheumatol Int. 2009;29:1031–1040.[PubMed]

6. Ramos-Remus C, Russell AS, Gomez-Vargas A, et al. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in three geographically and genetically different populations of ankylosing spondylitis and other spondyloarthropathies. Ann Rheum Dis. 1998;57:429–433.[PMC free article][PubMed]

7. Matsunaga S, Koga H, Kawabata N, et al. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in dizygotic twins with schizophrenia: a case report. Mod Rheumatol. 2008;18:277–280.[PubMed]

8. Koga H, Sakou T, Taketomi E, et al. Genetic mapping of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine. Am J Hum Genet. 1998;62:1460–1467.[PMC free article][PubMed]

9. Maeda S, Koga H, Matsunaga S, et al. Gender-specific haplotype association of collagen alpha2 (XI) gene in ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine. J Hum Genet. 2001;46:1–4.[PubMed]

10. Kon T, Yamazaki M, Tagawa M, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 stimulates differentiation of cultured spinal ligament cells from patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Calcif Tissue Int. 1997;60:291–296.[PubMed]

11. Kawaguchi Y, Furushima K, Sugimori K, Inoue I, Kimura T. Association between polymorphism of the transforming growth factor-beta1 gene with the radiologic characteristic and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2003;28:1424–1426.[PubMed]

12. Song J, Mizuno J, Hashizume Y, Nakagawa H. Immunohistochemistry of symptomatic hypertrophy of the posterior longitudinal ligament with special reference to ligamentous ossification. Spinal Cord. 2006;44:576–581.[PubMed]

13. Li H, Liu D, Zhao CQ, Jiang LS, Dai LY. Insulin potentiates the proliferation and bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced osteogenic differentiation of rat spinal ligament cells via extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2008;33:2394–2402.[PubMed]

14. Hirai N, Ikata T, Murase M, Morita T, Katoh S. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine. J Spinal Disord. 1995;8:337–341.[PubMed]

15. Furukawa K. Current topics in pharmacological research on bone metabolism: molecular basis of ectopic bone formation induced by mechanical stress. J Pharmacol Sci. 2006;100:201–204.[PubMed]

16. Okamoto K, Kobashi G, Washio M, et al. Dietary habits and risk of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligaments of the spine (OPLL); findings from a case-control study in Japan. J Bone Miner Metab. 2004;22:612–617.[PubMed]

17. Washio M, Kobashi G, Okamoto K, et al. Sleeping habit and other life styles in the prime of life and risk for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine (OPLL): a case-control study in Japan. J Epidemiol. 2004;14:168–173.[PubMed]

18. McAfee PC, Regan JJ, Bohlman HH. Cervical cord compression from ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in non-orientals. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1987;69:569–575.[PubMed]

19. Matsunaga S, Sakou T, Taketomi E, Komiya S. Clinical course of patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: a minimum 10-year cohort study. J Neurosurg. 2004;100(3 Suppl Spine):245–248.[PubMed]

20. Chiba K, Kato Y, Tsuzuki N, et al. Computer-assisted measurement of the size of ossification in patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine. J Orthop Sci. 2005;10:451–456.[PubMed]

21. Matsunaga S, Nakamura K, Seichi A, et al. Radiographic predictors for the development of myelopathy in patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: a multicenter cohort study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2008;33:2648–2650.[PubMed]

22. Chang H, Kong CG, Won HY, Kim JH, Park JB. Inter- and intra-observer variability of a cervical OPLL classification using reconstructed CT images. Clin Orthop Surg. 2010;2:8–12.[PMC free article][PubMed]

23. Sun Q, Hu H, Zhang Y, et al. Do intramedullary spinal cord changes in signal intensity on MRI affect surgical opportunity and approach for cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament? Eur Spine J. 2011;20:1466–1473.[PMC free article][PubMed]

24. Vedantam A, Jonathan A, Rajshekhar V. Association of magnetic resonance imaging signal changes and outcome prediction after surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011 Sep 16; [Epub]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2011.8.SPINE11452. [PubMed]

25. Mizuno J, Nakagawa H, Matsuo N, Song J. Dural ossification associated with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: frequency of dural ossification and comparison of neuroimaging modalities in ability to identify the disease. J Neurosurg Spine. 2005;2:425–430.[PubMed]

26. Hida K, Iwasaki Y, Koyanagi I, Abe H. Bone window computed tomography for detection of dural defect associated with cervical ossified posterior longitudinal ligament. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 1997;37:173–175.[PubMed]

27. Epstein NE. Identification of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament extending through the dura on preoperative computed tomographic examinations of the cervical spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2001;26:182–186.[PubMed]

28. Min JH, Jang JS, Lee SH. Significance of the double-layer and single-layer signs in the ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007;6:309–312.[PubMed]

29. Yagi M, Ninomiya K, Kihara M, Horiuchi Y. Long-term surgical outcome and risk factors in patients with cervical myelopathy and a change in signal intensity of intramedullary spinal cord on magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg Spine. 2010;12:59–65.[PubMed]

30. Matsuyama Y, Kawakami N, Yanase M, et al. Cervical myelopathy due to OPLL: clinical evaluation by MRI and intraoperative spinal sonography. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2004;17:401–404.[PubMed]

31. Cardoso MJ, Koski TR, Ganju A, Liu JC. Approach-related complications after decompression for cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Neurosurg Focus. 2011;30:E12.[PubMed]

32. Mazur M, Jost GF, Schmidt MH, Bisson EF. Management of cerebrospinal fluid leaks after anterior decompression for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: a review of the literature. Neurosurg Focus. 2011;30:E13.[PubMed]

33. Onari K, Akiyama N, Kondo S, Toguchi A, Mihara H, Tsuchiya T. Long-term follow-up results of anterior interbody fusion applied for cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2001;26:488–493.[PubMed]

34. Iwasaki M, Okuda S, Miyauchi A, et al. Surgical strategy for cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament Part 1: Clinical results and limitations of laminoplasty. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2007;32:647–653.[PubMed]

35. Sugrue PA, McClendon J, Jr, Halpin RJ, Liu JC, Koski TR, Ganju A. Surgical management of cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: natural history and the role of surgical decompression and stabilization. Neurosurg Focus. 2011;30:E3.[PubMed]

36. Koyanagi I, Iwasaki Y, Hida K, Imamura H, Abe H. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine. J Neurosurg. 1998;88:247–254.[PubMed]

37. Smith ZA, Buchanan CC, Raphael D, Khoo LT. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: pathogenesis, management, and current surgical approaches. A review. Neurosurg Focus. 2011;30:E10.[PubMed]

38. Song KJ, Choi BW, Park HJ. Anterior cervical decompression and fusion for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. J Korean Orthop Assoc. 2002;37:787–794.

39. Kato Y, Iwasaki M, Fuji T, Yonenobu K, Ochi T. Long-term follow-up results of laminectomy for cervical myelopathy caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. J Neurosurg. 1998;89:217–223.[PubMed]

40. Anderson PA, Matz PG, Groff MW, et al. Laminectomy and fusion for the treatment of cervical degenerative myelopathy. J Neurosurg Spine. 2009;11:150–156.[PubMed]

41. Chen Y, Chen D, Wang X, Guo Y, He Z. C5 palsy after laminectomy and posterior cervical fixation for ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2007;20:533–535.[PubMed]

42. Chen Y, Guo Y, Chen D, Wang X, Lu X, Yuan W. Long-term outcome of laminectomy and instrumented fusion for cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Int Orthop. 2009;33:1075–1080.[PMC free article][PubMed]

43. Takami T, Ohata K, Goto T, et al. Lift-up laminoplasty for myelopathy caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine. Neurol India. 2004;52:59–63.[PubMed]

44. Deutsch H, Mummaneni PV, Rodts GE, Haid RW. Posterior cervical laminoplasty using a new plating system: technical note. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2004;17:317–320.[PubMed]

45. Hirabayashi S, Yamada H, Motosuneya T, et al. Comparison of enlargement of the spinal canal after cervical laminoplasty: open-door type and double-door type. Eur Spine J. 2010;19:1690–1694.[PMC free article][PubMed]

46. Iwasaki M, Kawaguchi Y, Kimura T, Yonenobu K. Long-term results of expansive laminoplasty for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine: more than 10 years follow up. J Neurosurg. 2002;96(2 Suppl):180–189.[PubMed]

47. Fujimura Y, Nishi Y, Chiba K, Nakamura M, Hirabayashi K. Multiple regression analysis of the factors influencing the results of expansive open-door laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 1998;117:471–474.[PubMed]

48. Chiba K, Ogawa Y, Ishii K, et al. Long-term results of expansive open-door laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy: average 14-year follow-up study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2006;31:2998–3005.[PubMed]

49. Hyun SJ, Rhim SC, Roh SW, Kang SH, Riew KD. The time course of range of motion loss after cervical laminoplasty: a prospective study with minimum two-year follow-up. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2009;34:1134–1139.[PubMed]

50. Sakai K, Okawa A, Takahashi M, et al. 5-year follow-up evaluation of surgical treatment for cervical myelopathy caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: a prospective comparative study of anterior decompression and fusion with floating method versus laminoplasty. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2011 May 02; [Epub]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0b013e31821f4a51. [PubMed]

51. Chiba K, Yamamoto I, Hirabayashi H, et al. Multicenter study investigating the postoperative progression of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine: a new computer-assisted measurement. J Neurosurg Spine. 2005;3:17–23.[PubMed]

52. Epstein NE. Circumferential surgery for the management of cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. J Spinal Disord. 1998;11:200–207.[PubMed]

53. Epstein N. Anterior approaches to cervical spondylosis and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: review of operative technique and assessment of 65 multilevel circumferential procedures. Surg Neurol. 2001;55:313–324.[PubMed]

54. Song KJ, Johnson JS, Choi BR, Wang JC, Lee KB. Anterior fusion alone compared with combined anterior and posterior fusion for the treatment of degenerative cervical kyphosis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010;92:1548–1552.[PubMed]

1. Matsunaga S, Sakou T. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine: etiology and natural history. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2012;37(5):E309–E314.[PubMed]

2. Resnick D, Guerra J Jr, Robinson C A, Vint V C. Association of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and calcification and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1978;131(6):1049–1053.[PubMed]

3. Ren Y, Liu Z Z, Feng J. et al. Association of a BMP9 haplotype with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in a Chinese population. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(7):e40587.[PMC free article][PubMed]

4. Ren Y, Feng J, Liu Z Z, Wan H, Li J H, Lin X. A new haplotype in BMP4 implicated in ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in a Chinese population. J Orthop Res. 2012;30(5):748–756.[PubMed]

5. Tanaka T, Ikari K, Furushima K. et al. Genomewide linkage and linkage disequilibrium analyses identify COL6A1, on chromosome 21, as the locus for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;73(4):812–822.[PMC free article][PubMed]

6. Nakajima M, Takahashi A, Tsuji T. et al. A genome-wide association study identifies susceptibility loci for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine. Nat Genet. 2014;46(9):1012–1016.[PubMed]

7. Sohn S, Chung C K. Increased bone mineral density and decreased prevalence of osteoporosis in cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: a case-control study. Calcif Tissue Int. 2013;92(1):28–34.[PubMed]

8. Tanaka M, Kanazawa A, Yonenobu K. Tokyo, Japan: Springer; 2006. Diagnosis of OPLL and OYL: overview; pp. 111–114.

9. Kudo H, Furukawa K, Yokoyama T. et al. Genetic differences in the osteogenic differentiation potency according to the classification of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine. Spine. 2011;36(12):951–957.[PubMed]

10. Matsuyama Y Yoshihara H Tsuji T et al. Surgical outcome of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) of the thoracic spine: implication of the type of ossification and surgical options J Spinal Disord Tech 2005186492–497., discussion 498 [PubMed]

11. Matsunaga S, Sakou T. Tokyo, Japan: Springer; 2006. OPLL: disease entity, incidence, literature search and prognosis; pp. 11–17.

12. Epstein N E. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: diagnosis and surgical management. Neurosurg Q. 1992;2(3):223–241.

13. Maeda S, Koga H, Matsunaga S. et al. Gender-specific haplotype association of collagen alpha2 (XI) gene in ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine. J Hum Genet. 2001;46(1):1–4.[PubMed]

14. Ohtsuka K, Terayama K, Yanagihara M. et al. An epidemiological survey on ossification of ligaments in the cervical and thoracic spine in individuals over 50 years of age. Nippon Seikeigeka Gakkai Zasshi. 1986;60(11):1087–1098.[PubMed]

15. Shimizu T, Shimada H, Shirakura K. Scapulohumeral reflex (Shimizu). Its clinical significance and testing maneuver. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1993;18(15):2182–2190.[PubMed]

16. Chiba K, Yamamoto I, Hirabayashi H. et al. Multicenter study investigating the postoperative progression of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine: a new computer-assisted measurement. J Neurosurg Spine. 2005;3(1):17–23.[PubMed]

17. Hori T, Kawaguchi Y, Kimura T. How does the ossification area of the posterior longitudinal ligament progress after cervical laminoplasty? Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2006;31(24):2807–2812.[PubMed]

18. Hori T, Kawaguchi Y, Kimura T. How does the ossification area of the posterior longitudinal ligament thicken following cervical laminoplasty? Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2007;32(19):E551–E556.[PubMed]

19. Chikuda H, Seichi A, Takeshita K. et al. Acute cervical spinal cord injury complicated by preexisting ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: a multicenter study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2011;36(18):1453–1458.[PubMed]

20. Koyanagi I Iwasaki Y Hida K Imamura H Fujimoto S Akino M Acute cervical cord injury associated with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament Neurosurgery 2003534887–891., discussion 891–892 [PubMed]

21. Onishi E, Sakamoto A, Murata S, Matsushita M. Risk factors for acute cervical spinal cord injury associated with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2012;37(8):660–666.[PubMed]

22. Kudo H, Yokoyama T, Tsushima E. et al. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the classification and diagnosis for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine. Eur Spine J. 2013;22(1):205–210.[PMC free article][PubMed]

23. Izumi T, Hirano T, Watanabe K, Sano A, Ito T, Endo N. Three-dimensional evaluation of volume change in ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine using computed tomography. Eur Spine J. 2013;22(11):2569–2574.[PMC free article][PubMed]

24. Min J H, Jang J S, Lee S H. Significance of the double-layer and single-layer signs in the ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007;6(4):309–312.[PubMed]

25. Hida K Iwasaki Y Koyanagi I Abe H Bone window computed tomography for detection of dural defect associated with cervical ossified posterior longitudinal ligament Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 1997372173–175., discussion 175–176 [PubMed]

26. Min J H Jang J S Lee S H Significance of the double- and single-layer signs in the ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the thoracic spine Neurosurgery 2007611118–121., discussion 121–122 [PubMed]

27. Yamaura I, Kurosa Y, Matuoka T, Shindo S. Anterior floating method for cervical myelopathy caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999;(359):27–34.[PubMed]

28. Matsuoka T, Yamaura I, Kurosa Y, Nakai O, Shindo S, Shinomiya K. Long-term results of the anterior floating method for cervical myelopathy caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2001;26(3):241–248.[PubMed]

29. Matsunaga S, Nakamura K, Seichi A. et al. Radiographic predictors for the development of myelopathy in patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: a multicenter cohort study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2008;33(24):2648–2650.[PubMed]

30. Matsunaga S Kukita M Hayashi K et al. Pathogenesis of myelopathy in patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament J Neurosurg 200296(2, Suppl):168–172. [PubMed]

31. Kim B, Yoon H, Shin H C. et al. Surgical outcome and prognostic factors of anterior decompression and fusion for cervical compressive myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Spine J. 2015;15(5):875–884.[PubMed]

32. Ito K, Yukawa Y, Ito K. et al. Dynamic changes in the spinal cord cross-sectional area in patients with myelopathy due to cervical ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament. Spine J. 2015;15(3):461–466.[PubMed]

33. Pham M H, Attenello F J, Lucas J, He S, Stapleton C J, Hsieh P C. Conservative management of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. A review. Neurosurg Focus. 2011;30(3):E2.[PubMed]

34. Matsunaga S Sakou T Taketomi E Komiya S Clinical course of patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: a minimum 10-year cohort study J Neurosurg 2004100(3, Suppl Spine):245–248. [PubMed]

35. Zeidman S M, Ducker T B, Raycroft J. Trends and complications in cervical spine surgery: 1989–1993. J Spinal Disord. 1997;10(6):523–526.[PubMed]

36. Shin J H, Steinmetz M P, Benzel E C, Krishnaney A A. Dorsal versus ventral surgery for cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: considerations for approach selection and review of surgical outcomes. Neurosurg Focus. 2011;30(3):E8.[PubMed]

37. Gwinn D E, Iannotti C A, Benzel E C, Steinmetz M P. Effective lordosis: analysis of sagittal spinal canal alignment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy. J Neurosurg Spine. 2009;11(6):667–672.[PubMed]

38. Fujiyoshi T, Yamazaki M, Kawabe J. et al. A new concept for making decisions regarding the surgical approach for cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: the K-line. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2008;33(26):E990–E993.[PubMed]

39. Iwasaki M, Okuda S, Miyauchi A. et al. Surgical strategy for cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: Part 1: clinical results and limitations of laminoplasty. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2007;32(6):647–653.[PubMed]

40. Li H, Dai L Y. A systematic review of complications in cervical spine surgery for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Spine J. 2011;11(11):1049–1057.[PubMed]

41. Fujimori T, Iwasaki M, Okuda S. et al. Long-term results of cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament with an occupying ratio of 60% or more. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2014;39(1):58–67.[PubMed]

42. Iwasaki M Kawaguchi Y Kimura T Yonenobu K Long-term results of expansive laminoplasty for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine: more than 10 years follow up J Neurosurg 200296(2, Suppl):180–189. [PubMed]

43. Matsumoto M, Chiba K, Toyama Y. Surgical treatment of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and its outcomes: posterior surgery by laminoplasty. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2012;37(5):E303–E308.[PubMed]

44. Chen Y, Guo Y, Chen D, Wang X, Lu X, Yuan W. Long-term outcome of laminectomy and instrumented fusion for cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Int Orthop. 2009;33(4):1075–1080.[PMC free article][PubMed]

45. Son S, Lee S G, Yoo C J, Park C W, Kim W K. Single stage circumferential cervical surgery (selective anterior cervical corpectomy with fusion and laminoplasty) for multilevel ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament with spinal cord ischemia on MRI. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2010;48(4):335–341.[PMC free article][PubMed]

46. Hannallah D, Lee J, Khan M, Donaldson W F, Kang J D. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks following cervical spine surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90(5):1101–1105.[PubMed]

47. Mizuno J, Nakagawa H. Outcome analysis of anterior decompressive surgery and fusion for cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: report of 107 cases and review of the literature. Neurosurg Focus. 2001;10(4):E6.[PubMed]

48. Epstein N E. Evaluation and treatment of clinical instability associated with pseudoarthrosis after anterior cervical surgery for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Surg Neurol. 1998;49(3):246–252.[PubMed]

49. Shinomiya K, Okamoto A, Kamikozuru M, Furuya K, Yamaura I. An analysis of failures in primary cervical anterior spinal cord decompression and fusion. J Spinal Disord. 1993;6(4):277–288.[PubMed]

50. Tokuhashi Y, Matsuzaki H, Oda H, Uei H. Effectiveness of posterior decompression for patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the thoracic spine: usefulness of the ossification-kyphosis angle on MRI. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2006;31(1):E26–E30.[PubMed]

51. Tokuhashi Y, Matsuzaki H. Surgery for thoracic myelopathy due to ossification of ligaments with intraoperative ultrasonography and ultrasonic osteotome. Spinal Surgery. 1999;13:281–288.

52. Matsumoto M, Chiba K, Toyama Y. et al. Surgical results and related factors for ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament of the thoracic spine: a multi-institutional retrospective study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2008;33(9):1034–1041.[PubMed]

53. Tian W, Weng C, Liu B. et al. Intraoperative 3-dimensional navigation and ultrasonography during posterior decompression with instrumented fusion for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the thoracic spine. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2013;26(6):E227–E234.[PubMed]

54. Kato S, Murakami H, Demura S, Yoshioka K, Hayashi H, Tsuchiya H. Novel surgical technique for ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament in the thoracic spine. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012;17(6):525–529.[PubMed]

55. Eleraky M A, Setzer M, Papanastassiou I D. et al. Role of motor-evoked potential monitoring in conjunction with temporary clipping of spinal nerve roots in posterior thoracic spine tumor surgery. Spine J. 2010;10(5):396–403.[PubMed]

56. Kawahara N, Tomita K, Murakami H. et al. Circumspinal decompression with dekyphosis stabilization for thoracic myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2008;33(1):39–46.[PubMed]

57. Baaj A A, Smith D A, Vale F L, Uribe J S. Surgical approaches to thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. J Clin Neurosci. 2012;19(3):349–351.[PubMed]

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