Definition of Voice
A voice in literature is the form or a format through which narrators tell their stories. It is prominent when a writer places himself herself into words, and provides a sense that the character is real person, conveying a specific message the writer intends to convey. In simple words, it is an author’s individual writing style or point of view.
When a writer engages personally with a topic, he imparts his personality to that piece of literature. This individual personality is different from other individual personalities, which other writers put into their own works. Thus, voice is a unique personality of a literary work. Depending upon the type of work, authors may use a single voice, or multiple voices.
Types of Voice
Though there are many types of voice, two are most commonly used:
- Author’s Voice – Author’s voice is the writer’s particular style, which he employs in a particular story, or piece of writing.
- Character’s Voice – A character’s voice is the voice of the main character, how he views the world. It is a common narrative voice used with first and third person points of view. Here, the author uses a conscious person as a narrator in the story.
Examples of Voice in Literature
Example #1: Various works (By Multiple Authors)
Stream of Consciousness Voice
Stream of consciousness is a narrative voice that comprises the thought processes of the characters. James Joyce’s novel, Ulysses, and William Faulkner’s novels, As I Lay Dying, and The Sound and Fury, are modes of stream of consciousness narrative.
Example #2: To Kill a Mockingbird (By Harper Lee)
Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird is a very good example of a character’s voice, in which the character Scout narrates the whole story. Though she is an adult, she tells her story from her childhood’s point of view. When she grows older, her language becomes more sophisticated. Scout uses first‑person narrative to create a realistic sense, enabling the audience to notice the child is growing up. Her dialogue allows readers to hear the language of younger Scout. Also, it enables the readers to feel the voice of an adult in her actions and thinking.
Example #3: The Tell-Tale Heart (By Edgar Allan Poe)
Edgar Allan Poe’s short story The Tell-Tale Heart is an example of first‑person unreliable narrative voice, which is significantly unknowledgeable, biased, childish, and ignorant, which purposefully tries to deceive the readers. As the story proceeds, readers notice the voice is unusual, characterized by starts and stops. The character directly talks to the readers, showing a highly exaggerated and wrought style. It is obvious that the effectiveness of this story relies on its style, voice, and structure, which reveal the diseased state of mind of the narrator.
Example #4: Frankenstein (By Mary Shelley)
Epistolary narrative voice makes use of letters and documents to convey the message and reveal the story. It may use multiple persons’ voices, or there could be no narrator at all, as the author may have gathered different documents into a single place to shape the story. For instance, Mary Shelley, in her novel Frankenstein, employs epistolary form, in which she uses a sequence of letters to express the voice of her narrator – a scientific explorer, Captain Robert Walton. He attempts to reach the North Pole, where he meets Victor Frankenstein, and then records his experiences and confessions.
Example #5: Old Man and the Sea (By George R. R. Martin)
Third-person, Subjective Voice
Third person narrative voice employs a third‑person point of view. In a third‑person subjective voice, a narrator describes feelings, thoughts, and opinions of one or more characters. Hemingway’s novel Old Man and the Sea, and George R. R. Martin’s fantasy novel A Song of Ice and Fire, present examples of third person subjective voice.
Example #6: Hills Like White Elephants (By Ernest Hemingway)
Third-person Objective Voice
In a third person objective voice, a narrator narrates the story without showing the character’s feelings and thoughts, and gives unbiased and objective points of view. A typical example of this voice is Ernest Hemingway’s Hills Like White Elephants.
Function of Voice
While identifying the function of voice in literature, it is necessary to consider the narrator’s degree of objectivity, reliability, and omniscience. Voice shows whose eyes readers see the narrative through, which gives a personality to a literary piece. Moreover, a strong voice helps make every word count, sets up consistency, and most importantly grabs the attention of the readers.
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Following last week’s post on how to find your voice, here are the first 100-ish words from five books with unique and strong voices; a mix of first and third person, and of new and classic authors.
Marley was dead, to begin with. There is no doubt whatever about that. The register of his burial was signed by the clergyman, the clerk, the undertaker, and the chief mourner. Scrooge Signed it. And Scrooge’s name was good upon ‘Change, for anything he chose to put his hand to. Old Marley was as dead as a doornail.
Mind! I don’t mean to say that I know, of my own knowledge, what there is particularly dead about a doornail. I might have been inclined, myself, to regard a coffin nail as the deadest piece of ironmongery in the trade. But the wisdom of our ancestors is in the simile; and my unhallowed hands shall not disturb it, or the Country’s done for. You will therefore permit me to repeat, emphatically, that Marley was as dead as a doornail.
Unnecessary words like “of my own knowledge,” “myself,” and “emphatically.” Beginning sentences with articles and ending them with prepositions! And of course his completely pointless rabbit trail about the door nail. Yet none of it is truly pointless. By breaking these rules in the way he did, Mr. Dickens makes the story conversational. We’re not simply reading a story; we’re hearing it told by a charming, if slightly wordy, English gentleman.
First the colors.
Then the humans.
That’s usually how I see things.
Or at least, how I try.
***Here is a small fact***
You are going to die.
I am in all truthfulness attempting to be cheerful about this whole topic, though most people find themselves hindered in believing me, no matter my protestations. Please, trust me. I most definitely can be cheerful. I can be amiable. Agreeable. Affable. And that’s only the A’s. Just don’t ask me to be nice. Nice has nothing to do with me.
***Reaction to the aforementioned fact***
Does this worry you? I urge you—don’t be afraid. I’m nothing if not fair.
You can tell at a glance that Mr. Zusak is different. His bold interruptions to his own prose are a fascinating quirk all by themselves. Add the narrator’s somewhat depressed sense of humor and subtle conveyance of authority, and you become hooked. Notice the things he says and doesn’t say. He doesn’t say who or what he is, but we can infer from what he does say (“Then the humans.”) that he is not human and (“I’m nothing if not fair.”) that he has some control over whether we live or die.
Far out in the uncharted backwaters of the unfashionable end of the Western Spiral arm of the Galaxy lies a small unregarded yellow sun.
Orbiting this at a distance of roughly ninety-eight million miles is an utterly insignificant little blue-green planet whose ape-descended life forms are so amazingly primitive that they still think digital watches are a pretty neat idea.
This planet has—or rather had—a problem. Which was this: most of the people living on it were unhappy for pretty much of the time. Many solutions were suggested for this problem, but most of these were largely concerned with the movements of small green pieces of paper, which is odd because on the whole it wasn’t the small green pieces of paper that were unhappy.
Note the intentional wordiness, the amusing use of adverbs, how quickly he zeroes in from the hugeness of the universe to the ordinariness of digital watches. Mr. Adams has a unique way of looking at life, the universe, and everything—it is all absurd to him, and he enjoys the simple pleasure of sharing that absurdity with the rest of us.
You don’t know about me, without you have read a book by the name of “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer,” but that ain’t no matter. That book was made by Mr. Mark Twain, and he told the truth, mainly. There was things which he stretched, but mainly he told the truth. That is nothing. I never seen anybody but lied, one time or another, without it was Aunty Polly—Tom’s Aunt Polly, she is—and Mary, and the Widow Douglas, is all told about in that book—which is mostly a true book, with some stretchers, as I said before.
Breaking rules left and right here. Note the atrocious grammar and the way he interrupts and repeats himself. Mr. Twain puts us right in the room with Huck Finn. Simply the way it is worded helps us to both hear the accent and see the boy—before ever being told what he sounds or looks like.
All my life I’ve wanted to go to Earth. Not to live, of course—just to see it. As everybody knows, Terra is a wonderful place to visit but not to live. Not truly suited to human habitation.
Personally, I’m not convinced that the human race originated on Earth. I mean to say, how much reliance should you place on the evidence of a few pounds of old bones plus the opinions of anthropologists who usually contradict each other anyhow when what you are being asked to swallow so obviously flies in the face of all common sense?
Look at how long that last sentence is, with only one comma, and how it makes you read straight through it without breathing—and how subtly it conveys the talkative teenage girl. Mr. Heinlein achieves the ultimate victory in turning himself into an underage female.
Which of your favorite books have unique voices? Post an excerpt in the comments, or on your blog and link it back here!
WANT HELP FINDING YOUR VOICE?Join us for Voice Week 2014, September 22-26
About Stephanie OrgesStephanie is an award-winning copywriter, aspiring novelist, and barely passable ukulele player. Here, she offers writing prompts, tips, and moderate-to-deep philosophical discussions. You can also find her on Google+ and Pinterest.
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