Basic Proposal Structure
(Based on the "Basic Features" section in the Proposing a Solution Chapter of The St. Martin's Guide to Writing.
The Basic Features
I: Introduction: Define Problem, State Solution
II: Examine Problem Further (if needed)
III: Explain Alternative Solutions (ones that have been tried but failed)
IV. Present Your Solution in Detail + Benefits
V. Conclusion: Restate severity of Problem + benefits
The Basic Features with Elaboration
a. Leads to thesis sentence/question at end of first or second paragraph.
b. Thesis statement defines solution for reader, or, hints at a solution but doesn't come right out with it. Instead, it defines problem and foreshadows a statement of solution later in essay.
A: Introduction to thesis statement
Should define problem, in one or two paragraphs, by specific methods:
1. Specific example of problem; specific case.
2. Historical example of problem; background on evolution of problem.
3. Show people being affected by problem.
4. Pose your solution/thesis at end of first or second paragraph.
II: Further Examination of Problem (Maybe)
1. Examine problem thoroughly in current social context. Purpose: to show reader the severity/magnitude of the problem; relate it to specific, real events. One or two paragraphs should suffice.
2. Examine problem thoroughly in a historical context; this relates back to introduction but expands the magnitude of essay.
3. Last sentence of each paragraph should cue the topic/subject of the next paragraph. What should be cued? Either further detailed discussion of problem, or begin to explain alternative solutions that have not worked.
III: Examine Alternative Solutions
1. Analyze first alternative solution; explain its full process, in detail, and its results.
2. Refutation: Diminish the effectiveness of the alternative solution by pointing out its weaknesses. A paragraph should suffice for detailed elaboration on each weakness of solution.
3. Repeat steps one and two above, depending on the number of alternative solutions you've decided to address.
IV. Your Solution
1. Define your own solution, in detail, in a step-by-step manner, in two or three paragraphs. The number of paragraphs depends on how many points your solution entails. Remember, you are directing the reader to take action.
2. In two or three paragraphs, explain to reader the benefits of each point of your solutions, relating to feasibility and the positive impact your solution will have on society.
3. It's also an option to integrate alternative solutions into your own solution, pointing out how your solution (steps of action) would be more likely than the alternative solution's to solve the problem.
1. Restate severity of problem; negative benefits of alternative solutions, then;
2. Restate benefits of solution and leave reader with overall statement of the positive effect your solution will have.
A Note on Transitions:
Make sure that the last sentence of each paragraph cues the topic sentence of the next paragraph; the reverse is also true.
Each sentence is an idea, thus each subsequent idea (sentence) should follow logically from the last. Each idea grows until there is a reasonable conclusion, which will be the resolution/conclusion of the paragraph.
In the essay, no sentences are wasted. Each sentence must be logically connected to the sentence before and after it.
Whether you choose a research paper, a paper based on an Academic Civic Engagement project, or a project that will produce something other than a 35-40 page paper (perhaps a creative project, a website, or something else), you must submit a proposal to the American Studies program in fall of senior year that will merit approval by the faculty. A comps proposal is a thoughtful, detailed plan, a road map that you anticipate following. Of course, you cannot know exactly where your exploration will take you and the proposal does not bind you to avenues of inquiry that you discover to be dead ends. However, a successful proposal does demonstrate that you have a good idea of possible routes and have anticipated potential potholes in the road and thought about how to avoid them.
A successful proposal will outline your topic and approach, will indicate that relevant evidence is available to you, and show that you have the requisite skills and abilities to make sense of the evidence you propose to use, whether it is textual, statistical, ethnographic, visual, etc. If you propose research involving human subjects (e.g. interviews or survey research), you must obtain permission from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) in advance; see Carleton's Institutional Review Board webpage and indicate in your proposal that you have consulted with the IRB and begun the formal process of gaining approval or exemption. If you anticipate a product other than a 35-40 page paper, please explain as fully as possible the final form you hope your project will take. Any good proposal will make a case that this comps is worth doing – that it will add to the scholarly conversation about your topic in some way and that it will be an appropriate culmination of your interdisciplinary American Studies major. You should work closely with your advisor, as well as the faculty leader of AmSt 399 and your peers, in developing your proposal.
The proposal should be typed and double-spaced, coherently organized, carefully written, and honest about areas that are not fully developed. Examples of successful proposals done by previous students in the program are available in the e-reserves section of the Gould Library page under AMST 400.
The preferred format of the proposal is as follows:
1) THE TOPIC
• Working Title: This should tell the reader the specific focus of the paper; it can also be clever. Your final title might be different.
• Explain in a paragraph or two why this topic is worth investigating. Be sure to define all your key terms.
2) THE RESEARCH QUESTION
• Narrow your focus from a broad interest and formulate a question about your topic. Posing two or three related questions might work well, but any more than that would likely be too many for a paper/project of this scope. You should pose questions that are answerable with information that you are confident will be available to you; you want to present a plan that is doable with the time and resources that you have. Articulate your working thesis if you have one.
3) SOURCES and METHODS
• What sources will you use? What is their nature? Where are they located? How will you gain access to them? What will constitute evidence for your argument / interpretation in your comps? Include reference to both primary and secondary sources. What sources do you think will be central to your paper / project, and what will you need to explore as background or context? This should be a description and not a list (that will come later, in the Bibliography), and should reflect the interdisciplinarity of your inquiry.
• What methods will you use to explore and analyze your sources? How will you gather or generate your information / evidence?
Be specific about describing different methods drawn from multiple disciplinary approaches, as appropriate. Give examples of the kind of inquiry you’ll pursue, to the extent that you can. For instance, if you plan to conduct interviews, include a list of questions you intend to ask as an appendix to your proposal. Similarly, if you plan to use information from a particular database, such as a census report or a Pew Research Survey, it would be helpful to include a sample page or two as an appendix, as well as a description in the methods section of how you’ll use such information. This is the place to indicate that you’ve started the Institutional Review Board (IRB) process of approval if your proposed research involves Human Subjects.
• This Sources and Methods section is important in assuring yourself, your advisor, and the American Studies faculty that your research plan is doable. Of course, your sources and methods may evolve and change as you do further research, thinking, and consultation with advisors.
4) THE CONVERSATION YOU’RE JOINING
• How do you anticipate that your work will fit with earlier research and analysis related to your topic? Describe the conversation you’ll be joining in undertaking this project – what are the debates? Whose work will you be building on? What bodies of knowledge will you add to? What interpretations do you expect to contradict or revise? This is an invitation to situate yourself in relevant scholarship – to provide a review of the relevant literature. Here you should move beyond what you’ve already said about SOURCES, and include evaluation and context. Likewise, this should be a narrative and not just a list (which you’ll include in the BIBLIOGRAPHY). What do you think you’ll contribute that’s new or different – e.g. are you looking at new sources, or a new combination of evidence, offering a new interpretation or new angle on the question? If you know of relevant theoretical framework(s) that you’ll use, include a description here.
• Exploring and analyzing the conversation(s) you’re joining in undertaking your comps will help you answer the ultimate “so what?” question about the significance of your work.
• List all the sources you’ve identified so far, whether or not you’ve already looked at them. Your bibliography should be divided into two sections, one for primary sources and the other for secondary sources. Within each, list items in alphabetical order by last name of author, and annotate the bibliography to indicate what you have read and what you have not yet read. Indicate why you think sources are promising and relevant, what they contain or what you think they contain.
• Successful proposals will (at this stage) include at least a dozen substantial sources of information, with annotations.
• American Studies uses Chicago Style formatting for notes and bibliography. Handbooks with examples are available in the Writing Center in the library; you could also consult the journal American Quarterly (available in paper copy in the library) to see articles using Chicago formatting. If you choose to use different Style conventions, please discuss with your advisor and explain in your proposal.
6) YOUR PREPARATION TO UNDERTAKE THIS COMPS
• How well-prepared are you to undertake this comps essay or project? List here the courses you have taken that have given you the background knowledge and tools you’ll need and explain how they’ve prepared you. Also, describe any extra-academic experience or training that has given you needed skills or relevant practice. Explain how this paper or project will be an appropriate capstone to YOUR intellectual journey through the American Studies major.
7) COMPS PROPOSAL COVER SHEET
• Download the American Studies Comps Proposal Cover Sheet, fill it out, and include it with your proposal. You must obtain the signature of your advisor on this sheet before turning it in. The signature of your advisor does not constitute approval from the program.
Comps Proposals are due electronically by 5pm on Tuesday of seventh week of fall term (October 24th, 2017) on the AMST Class of ’18 Moodle site. Seniors should make sure they have access to this site well before the due date. Any problems, contact firstname.lastname@example.org asap.