What were the differences in interpretation of the two terms--Catholic Reformation and Counter-Reformation?
What were the accomplishments of Pope Paul III? of Pope Paul IV? How did they differ in their approach to church reform?
How did the responses of the church hierarchy differ from the responses of lay people?
What were the primary goals of the Council of Trent?
List the major positions taken by the Council of Trent on dogma and church reform.
What was the condition of the papacy as it emerged after the Council of Trent?
List some of the new religious orders created during this period and briefly identify the religious mission of each.
How did Ignatius Loyola organize the Jesuit order? What was its purpose?
How did the Jesuits differ from previous Catholic religious orders?
How did Ignatius Loyola's Spiritual Exercises and the Jesuit movement itself represent a continuation of Renaissance humanism?
Why was the Jesuit order so fit to serve the Catholic Counter-Reformation?
How did women react to the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation?
What appeal would the reforming tendencies have held for women? Why do you suppose other women remained faithful to the Catholic Church?
What were the political, economic, and social legacies of the "Two Reformations?"
|Reformation 1: The Beginning||Even during the beginning of the Renaissance the Church remained an incredibly powerful force in Europe. Some though began to question some of it's actions. Could those voices bring change?||Office 365 PPT||Google Slides|
|Reformation 2: Luther||One of the most vocal challengers was Martin Luther of Germany. His rise from nothing to key historical figure is an amazing story.||Office 365 PPT||Google Slides|
Reformation Unit Guide
1. Reformation Walkthru - Series of questions based on the graphics in Holt's Medieval to Early Modern Times.
2. Reformation Culture Shock - After opening with this short reading about Jan Hus students watch a short movie clip in a foreign language (I show Madagascar in French) then take a quiz on it to simulate the use of Latin in the Catholic Church. They are then given the opportunity to buy an A+ on the quiz to simulate indulgences. Other activities, time permitting, include listening to worship music from different churches and two Four-Quarter picture analyses.
3. Reformation Stations - 9 stations using mostly primary sources from the Reformation. Students in groups move around the room analyzing the documents and responding to questions.
4.Reformation Dossiers - A group lesson where students evaluate dossiers of six Renaissance figures (Luther, Tyndale, Hus, Henry VIII, Pope Leo X, and Torquemada) to determine which should be arrested. Works well as an introduction to the unit.nts
5. Reformation Quest for Knowledge - Series of questions based on the text in the Holt book modeled after the questions asked on the CST.
|Luther||DVD||Excellent biopic about Martin Luther. It is rated PG-13 for mild language and some scenes of violence. I don't show the whole movie but I show many segments of it. The scene showing Martin's first arriving in Rome and seeing the corruption of the priests is particularly powerful. Students love it.|
The Secret Files of the Inquisition
|DVD||2006 documentary detailing the scope, impact and techniques of the Inquisition. There are 4 episodes that each cover different periods of the Inquisition. I show parts of the episodes on the Spanish inquisition and the inquisition during the Renaissance. These probably could be used as full episodes. The information is solid and they are entertaining enough to hold interest.|
Christopher Columbus: The Discovery
|VHS||While I don't like recommending anything on VHS this movie has a couple fantastic scenes that are well worth showing. There is a scene where Columbus is taken to the Inquisition and another where the Jewish expulsion in Spain is announced (and later carried out). I've never seen another movie even mention the expulsion let alone put some emotion behind it.|
God's Outlaw: William Tynsdale
|DVD||Good if only for the opening scene where a young girl is reprimanded for saying the Lord's Prayer in English instead of Latin. It is a fairly good movie otherwise as well but being made in the 80s probably makes it too dated for today's students.|
R.E.M. - "Losing My Religion"
|CD||"That's me in the corner losing my religion, that's me in the corner, choosing my confession." Great song to use for any number of Reformation figures.|
|Empires: Martin Luther||DVD||Incredibly good information source for teachers... not so much for kids. It is rather dryly presented. I use only one short clip from this and really it isn't necessary at all. Still, I watch it yearly to refresh my own mind.|
David Bowie - "Changes"
|CD||I use the chorus of this song in a few places throughout the year including the title slide of my Reformation notes.|
Lesson Plan Guide
I. The Christian Church
a. Provides a brief history of Christianity. I go out of my way in this section to explain the concept of religious denominations. My students rarely understand that a Catholic is a Christian. This opening section is design to help cover that. It helps, but it is still a fight to get them to accept it.
b. Reformation Culture Shock
II. Problems in the Church
a. Explores the 3 major problems in the Catholic church prior to the Reformation (money, corruption, and discrimination). The Inquisition is introduced here but not heavily covered.
b.Reformation Chapter Walk
III. Martin Luther and the Reformation
a. Stories need characters. Luther, no doubt, was a character and therefore this section focuses on him. It uses multiple clips from the movie "Luther" to help tell the story. This section also includes the Counterreformation and the birth of the Jesuits.
b. Reformation Stations - This lab consists of 9 stations of random little details about the Reformation. There's a couple of Luther's political cartoons, a couple Bible passages, a diarty entry from an Inquisitor, and a portion of the Latin Mass. Each has different activities (most short answer questions) to go along with a visual.